[Notes] Biodiversity


INTRODUCTION:

Its aim is to protect the Nature and its severely endangered species, treasures of biodiversity.
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India took the presidency for 11th meet of conference of parties (CoP) in which 193 countries participated.


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A unique pilgrimage is dedicated in this concern by Kusum Vyas who decided to traverse by foot for 1125 km to reach Allahabad. Next meeting to be held in South Korea in 2014.
Dr. Braulio in executive secretary of convention on biological diversity (CBD) and P. Balkrishna is chairman of national biodiversity.
·        
3 pillars of CBD:
1  Conservation
2  Sustainable use
3  Access and benefit sharing
                          (But government is ignoring all this)

-Three tier format of National biodiversity authority (NBA) mechanism- national, State & local to conserve traditional variety instead of hybrid.
-NBA has total 10 targets of which 1st is the planning process of govt that considers integration of biodiversity by 2020. Its 6th target is 2-5% increase in areas of forest, protected areas and marine and coastal regions by 2017.

CHALLENGES:
-         Burning of fossil fuel Cause Ocean to become warmer and acidic.
-         Temp increased to 0.40C since 1950s.
-        Sea level risen to 22cm since 1880
-         Dam construction and diversion of river flow effected flow of fresh water.
-        Pollutants (non biodegradable wastes and plastics) affect reproduction, growth, behavior of marine life.
-         Noise of ships etc prevents communication of species like whale that are miles away.
-        By overhunting 13% of global fishes have collapsed.
-         Gulf of Mannar:  Best Pearls and best divers are found in the GoM but

Corals are destroying due to-
1.   Release of effluents from industries
2.   Cultivating of alien weeds which choke corals to death
3.   Manual collection of reefs
4.   Bleaching sue to increased heat conditions
·       
- Due to building of industries and factories trees are cut down and lands are degraded due to pollution and that’s why animals and birds have lost their shelters, afraid of getting extinct.

COASTAL AND MARINE advantages:
- In the 90% of habitable space 1/3rd of all known species are in coral reefs
- 41% population lives in 100 km of coast
1/3rd oxygen is produced by life in sea and 30% CO2 is absorbed by sea to limit global warming
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Millions of people are employed by fisheries and 15% of diet is from animal protein.

- Paints, fertilizers, Skin lotion, toothpastes, medicines, anti-cancer drugs are marine bi-products. The shore provides, Recreation, tourism, and salt production.  Mangroves protect coastal aquifers & coastal communities from cyclones and tsunami.
- Water quality can be regulated by filtering sediments & organic wastes.
But fishing market is going down due to unsafe handling, storage, and transport facility and also due to discharge effluents into the sea

SUNDARBAN:
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World’s largest mangrove and it forms an Archipelago (group of islands), straddling India and Bangladesh.
-It consists of 102 islands (54 inhabited), 26 mangroves, 234 bird species & 47 mammals including Royal Bengal Tiger.

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But due to increase in sea level, cyclones and climates change and cause people to move away.
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Lohachara and New Moore are the two inhabited islands that have been submerged in the Bay of Bengal.


BIODIVERSITY IN TRIBAL REGIONS:
-Due to mining more than 15000 hectares of forest lands have been legally diverse causing lions to move away.
   -Tribes have been granted forest rights according to Forest Rights act 2006 and the forest clearance would be illegal till they do not permit.
   -Khiarwar tribes of Madhya Pradesh are against mining because it may harm biodiversity and nearby reservoirs.
-Dalits are also to be saved because biodiversity conservation model is for economic values and Dalits are landless, living in vulnerable areas and dependent on natural resources. They contribute 20% of world population.

BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS:

-Many animal and species use these 120 marine areas called “hotspot” for migration, reproduction, nesting, nursing.

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Thus BDC must not be country wise but every place that needs urgent protection.
    -Only 2% of oceans are safe. It affects food chain of all because it helps in climate regulation, food, water and oxygen.

ENDNAGERED SPECIES
:
The species which are still on the top 25 endangered list are Western Purple faced Langur in Sri Lanka and a range of apes, monkey, and lemur from Tanzania, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Indonesia, Vietnam, China, and South America.
Two species are removed from this list the Lion Tailed Macaque, and the Western Hoolock Gibbon found in north east of India.

Four species which are to be concerned are: 
-    Punganur Cow- present in Punganur area of Chittoor district. Its milk contains 8% fat.
-    Ongole Bull- it has 5 feet meat and a huge hump. It is exported to 26 countries from Brazil.
-    Pulasa fish- found in Godavari salty water. Meat of this fish is used for curing some ailments including cancer. Japanese have a high demand for it.
-    Red sanders tree- it has a huge trunk and high massive tree found only in Kadapa area.e- Atlas:
   - An online atlas of imp bird areas is launched by Bird Life International at 11th CoP.
·  - It will describe ecologically of biologically significant marine areas.
-  - Launched because sea birds are most threatened because they come to land only for breeding.
  

IRENA:
  The International Renewable Energy Agency launched the first world’s atlas on clean energy which will offer open access info on countries renewable energy potential to promote the sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy. It includes the Future Energy Summit, The International Water Summit and the International renewable Energy conference.

MANAGERIAL STARTEGIES:
-       Adequate knowledge of ecosystems and regeneration must be given to all.
-         Strict reinforcement of laws & coastal zone management policies are required.
-         Establishment of marine protected areas/ reserves. Currently coastal waters are 1% which must be increased to 10% till 2020.
-         Pollution tax, user charges, fees etc which may act as disincentives for resource degradation & payment for preserving ecosystems should be introduced.
-         Land based activities which affect it, must be controlled.
-         Coastal biodiversity conservation must be participatory.
-         Formation of more green buildings (green buildings are those that consume at least 30% less electricity, pose less threat to environment, generates zero waste occupancy, consumes 25% less water, keeps pollution negligible, helps ground water recharge).
-         Implementation of Aichi target i.e. halving the rate of loss of natural habitats including forests and then reducing this loss to zero.



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