[Notes] Essay - Inclusive Democracy

 Inclusive Democracy

·         When is Inclusive Democracy?

·         When was the Need for Inclusive Democracy felt?

·         What importance does Inclusive Democracy have in Indian context?

·         Conflict between Gandhian & Nehruian idea about Inclusive Democracy

·         Road ahead

When is Inclusive Democracy?
Democracy refers to the political system, which runs directly by the people of the country or their elected representatives. Inclusive democracy means, including people both form rural and urban area. Idea of ‘Inclusive Democracy’ was conceived in late 1990s.
Takis Fotopoulus
has connected the events (happening in World History) with ID (Inclusive Democracy). Post World War –II, Social Democracy was dominant for around 25 years. During these 25 years, lot had been said (and done) about Welfare State, Full employment, Redistribution of income in favour of weaker section.

After Social Democracy, came the phase of Neo-liberal (Liberal Socialist). However, even liberal socialist democracy was inadequate; as it was not capable to create the ‘real’ environment of democracy in household-workplace-educational institutes. This change from Social to Liberal Democracy, lead to the merger of Direct Democracy & Economic Democracy with Ecological Democracy & Social Realm Democracy.  

When was the Need for Inclusive Democracy felt?
Multidimensional Crisis in Ecological, Economic, Political, Social & Cultural spheres led to the need of a new change. This time it is the need of Inclusive Democracy. It happens as power gets concentrated in the hands of few. Globally, it is well understood that, oligopoly will not lead to ‘Inclusive Democracy’. Thirst of rich for becoming more rich will keep on growing, this led to increase the disparity in the society (this is anti- Inclusive Democracy). As the power gets concentrated in the hands of few, both on political and business level, the involvement of ‘aam-aadmi’ starts to diminish.

What importance does Inclusive Democracy have in Indian context?
In India, in the current scenario, the concept of ID has got restricted to some
1) Flagship (read Fancy) schemes/programmes, or some
2) amendments in the Act. Various schemes launch by MMS (Manmohan Singh or etc.) like MGNREGA, IAY, PDS etc. does not have real essence of ID.

As people who should get the benefits have to beg for aids (which lacks dignity). In after making new amendments in Panchayat Act or PESA, the laws are not implemented on ground. As the real ‘veto’ power lies with the politicians or industrial house. These people often neglect the interest of poor. Power and money is the driving force in Indian economy which over-rides the real implementation of ID in the system. Encouraging mining, industrialization on tribal area against the will of the native is a common phenomenon is India. Agricultural lands are encroached upon against the will of village-dwellers. 3) Asking for various Rights…Right to Demand,drinking water, education, Health etc. without proper sense of balance of duties will lead to violence and chaos. Violence and Chaos are anti-ID in nature.

Conflict between Gandhian & Nehruian idea about Inclusive Democracy
Two name in Indian National Movement- Gandhi & Nehru. Gandhi declared Nehru as his heir. Gandhi always dreamt of India with Inclusive Democracy, in true sense. Fundamentally the thought process of ID for both of them was same, there exists some conceptual difference. The main conflict between Gandhi & Nehru’s thought lies in the understanding of free, modern and progressive individual in enabling social & political environment which is democracy. Gandhi said..”..one’s behavior as an economic agent cannot be isolated from one’s behavior as an autonomous moral agent..”. Whereas, Nehru always preached science and technology over one’s behavior/ethics etc.

Road ahead
·         Need to transcend both neo-liberal market economy & socialist statism to put an end to economic misery, which goes against the majority of population.
·         Nature has to be treated with respect & humanity
·         Desire to acquire more-&-more, should diminish
·         Every village will be a republic, with full power, capable enough to sustain itself                                                       

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