[Notes] History - Rulers In India


MUGHALS RULE IN INDIA
Important Rulers
1.   Babar          -        1526 – 1530 AD
2.   Humayun   -        1530 – 1540 AD & 1555 – 1556 AD
3.   Shershah Suri      -        1540 – 1545 AD
4.   Akbar          -        1556 – 1605 AD
5.   Jahangir     -        1605 – 1627 AD
6.   Shahjahan  -        1627 – 1657 AD
7.   Aurangzeb  -        1657 – 1707 AD

1.   BABAR ( 1526 – 30 AD)
-          Founder of Mughal Dynasty in India
-          Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in 1st Battle of Panipat (1526 AD)
-          Wrote his Auto-biography “Tuzuki-e-Baburi” (Babar Naama), in Turkish Language. It means, ‘Memories of Babar’.

2.   HUMAYUN (1530 – 40 AD, 1555 – 56 AD)
-          Son of Babar
-          Defeated by Shershah and fled away to Iran
-          Gulbandan begum, sister wrote his Auto-biography “Humayun Naama”.

3.   SHERSHAH SURI (1540 – 45 AD)
-          Founder of Sur Dynasty (Afghans) in India.
-          Introduced ‘Pattadri System’ (Pattas to Farmers), Silver Rupia, Gold Mohar.
-          Successor’s: Islam Shah (1545 – 53 AD) , Sikindar Shah (1553 – 55 AD)


4.   AKBAR (1556 – 1605 AD)
-          At the time of Humayun death, his son Akbar was just 14 years old. So, Hem raj occupied the throne in Agra.
-          Then Akbar marched from Amarkot, Rajasthan to Agra with his guardian Bairam Khan and waged 2nd Battle of Panipat (1556 AD).
-          Abolished Jijiya, Pilgrimage tax
-          Introduced a new religion called, “Din-i-Ilahi” (1582 AD).
-          Introduced ‘Mansabdari System’; a rank in Civil & Army administration.

5.   JAHANGIR (1605 – 1627 AD)
-          Son of Akbar, (Real Name- Salim, Wife- Mehurnnisa)
-          After marriage, he gave her title ‘Noorjahan’ (Light of World).
-          But her domination in rule led to a civil war with her brother Asaf Khan, Military Chief (Father of Mumtaj Begum).
-          Finally he jailed Noorjahan and made his Son-in-law, Shah Jahan as the emperor.

6.   SHAH-JAHAN (1627 – 1657 AD)
-          He built Taj Mahal, Agra and Red Fort, Delhi.
-          He took 22 years (1631 – 1653) for completion of Tajmahal (Ustad Isa).
-          He has 4 sons Darashikov, Murad, Aurangzeb, and Shahshuja. But Aurangzeb, killed all his 3 brothers, imprisoned his father and occupied the throne.

7.   AURANGZEB (1657 – 1707 AD)
-          Third Son of Shahjahan
-          Annexed Bijapur (1686 AD) and Golconda (1687 AD), Renewed Jijiya tax.




VIJAYANAGARA KINGDOM (1336 – 1680 AD)
Important Dynasties
1.   Sangama’s  : 1336 – 1485 AD
2.   Salva’s        : 1485 – 1505 AD
3.   Tuluva’s     : 1505 – 1570 AD
4.   Araveti’s      : 1570 – 1680 AD

-          Founders are Hariraya I & Bukkaraya I of Sangama Dynasty (1336 AD).
-          But actually this period is ruled by Mohd. Bin Tughlaq (1335 – 51 AD).

-          Sri Krishna Devaraya (1509 – 1529 AD)
-          Considered to be the Greatest Ruler, belongs to Tuluva dynasty.
-          “Yavvanarajya Sthapanacharya”, “Andhra Bhoja” was his famous titles.
-          He defeated Bijapur and Orissa.
-          He built “Hazararama Swamy Temple” in Hampi, Karnataka.
-          He wrote ‘Jambhavati Parinayam’ in Sanskrit and ‘Aamuktha Malayada’ in Telugu.
-          His court Bhuvanavijayam has ‘Ashta Diggajas” (8 Poets),

1.   Allasani Peddana                 - Manu Charitra
2.   Tenali Ramakrishnudu       - Panduranga Mahatyam
3.   Dhurjati                    - Kaalahasthi Mahatyam
4.   Pingali Suranna                  - Kalaa Purnodayam
5.   Ramaraja Bhushana - Vasu Charitra
6.   Rama Bhadra            - Sakala Neethisara Sangraham
7.   Mallana                     - Rajasekhara Charitra
8.   Nandi Thimmana                - Paarijatha Apaharanam

-          Battle of Tallikota/ Bannihatti/ Rakhasa Tangadi” (1565 AD) led to the fall of the Vijayanagara Kingdom.
-          In this war The Vijayanagara Kings (Aliya Ramaraya, Sadasiva Raya) fought with Bahamani Sultans of Bidar, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.



BAHAMANI KINGDOM
(1347 AD)
-          Alauddin Hasan Bahmanshah (Hasan Gangu) Proclaimed Independence during the rule of Mohd. Bin Tughlaq.
-          Mohd. Shah III was the important ruler. (Mohd. Gawan, Prime Minister)
S.NO
Territory
Ruled By
Annexed By
1.
Birar
Imadshahi Dynasty
Sultan of Ahmad Nagar (1574 AD)
2.
Bidar
Baridshahi Dynasty
Sultan of Bijapur (1619 AD)
3.
Ahmad Nagar
Nizamshahi Dynasty
Mughal Ruler Shahjahan (1633 AD)
4.
Bijapur
Adishahi Dynasty
Mughal Ruler Aurangzeb (1686 AD)
5.
Golconda
Qutubshahi Dynasty
Mughal Ruler Aurangzeb (1687 AD)





MARATHA KINGDOM/ BHONSLE DYNASTY
-          ‘Chatrapathi’ Sivaji, Greatest ruler among Maratha’s.
-          Father: Shaji Bhonsle, Mother: Jijiyabhai, Guardian: Dadaji Kandev
-          Spiritual Guru: Samarda Ramadas
-          An exponent in “Guerrilla Warfare” techniques.
-          Defeated Afzal Khan of Bijapur (1659 AD)
-          Defeated Military General of Aurangzeb, Shaistha Khan (Surat) in 1664.
-          Introduced new taxes Chauth (1/4th revenue from areas under Sivaji’s rule), Sardeshmukhi (1/10th revenue must be paid to King).
-       
 
His court has ‘Ashta-Pradhanas’ (8 Ministers)
1.   Peshwa            : Prime Minister
2.   Amathya          : Finance Minister
3.   Mantri             : Home Minister
4.   Sumanth         : Foreign Minister
5.   Sachiva            : Royal Correspondence
6.   Senapathi        : Military Chief
7.   Nyayadish        : Judiciary Chief
8.   Panditarao       : Religious Head




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