Himachal Pradesh Administrative Services (HPAS/HAS): Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Mains Exam Syllabus

Detailed SYLLABUS for Himachal Pradesh Administrative Services (HPAS/HAS) Mains Examination

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science


PAPER-I
1.  Animal Nutrition:
1.  Animal Nutrition: energy sources, energy metabolism and

requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and work.
1.1  Advanced studies in nutrition-protein- sourceof protein, its metabolism and synthesis, protein quality in relation to requirements. Importance of energy protein ratio in rations.
1.2  Advanced studies in nutrition-minerals- sources, functions, requirements and their interrelationships including trace minerals.
1.3  Vitamins, hormones and growth stimulating substances-sources, functions, requirements and interrelationship with minerals.

1.4  Advanced ruminant nutrition-Dairy cattle – nutrients and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes.
1.5  Advanced non-ruminant nutrition-poultry- nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry meat and egg production. Nutrient requirement and feed formulation for broilers at different ages.
1.6  Advanced non- ruminant nutrition- swine- nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat production. Nutrient requirements and feed formulation for body, growing and finishing pigs.
1.7  Advanced applied animal nutrition-a critical review and evaluation of feed experiments, digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and measure of feed energy. Nutrient requirements for growth. Maintenance and production. Balanced rations.

2. Animal Physiology:
2.1  Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and post natal growth, Growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, body conformation, composition and meat quality.
2.2  Milk production, reproduction and diagnosis, Hormonal control of mammary developments, milk secretion and milk ejection, composition of milk of cows and buffaloes. Male and female reproductive organs, use of hormones in animal reproduction and their components and functions. Ruminant and non-ruminant digestion.
2.3  Environmental Physiology: Physiology of adaptation, environmental factors and their effect on animal production and reproduction, methods of controlling climatic stress, animal ecology.
2.4  Semen quality preservation and artificial insemination: Semen and its composition, Chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting quality of semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen preservation, composition and diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen, freezing techniques of semen in cows, sheep and goats, swine and poultry.

3. Livestock Production and Management:
3.1  Current status of animal husbandry in India / state, prevalent Livestock Production Systems, Comparison of dairying in India and abroad, Scope of dairying in income and employment generation, dairying under mixed, specialized and diversified farming. Commercial and economical dairy farming, starting a dairy farm / dairying enterprise, capital and land requirement, Organizational set up of a dairy farm, Farm budgeting. Procurement of different goods / inputs, Personnel management, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animals, Herd recording, Maintenance of farm records, Routine farm operations, Clean milk production, marketing of milk and other animal products. Pricking policy, Cost of milk production, Concept of organic animal husbandry.
3.2  Feeding practices of dairy cattle, Feed and Fodder requirements of animals / dairy farms, Developing practical and economical rations for animal feeding, Managing round the year supply of greens, recent trends in animal feeding, management and feeding practices of lactating, dry, pregnant animals. Day old and young stock, heifers and breeding bulls. Keeping feeding records.
3.3 Management and feeding practices of other important livestock species (Sheep, Goat, Pigs, Equines, Yaks, Rabbits etc. ) and Poultry, generals problems / constraints of rearing these species.
3.4  Feeding of different animals during scarcityperiod and natural disasters (drought, floods, famine etc.).

4. Milk Technology:
4.1  Organization of rural milk procurement, collection and transport of raw milk.
4.2  Quality, testing and grading raw milk, Quality storage grades of whole milk, Skimmed milk and cream.
4.3  Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, recombined and flavoured milks.
4.4  Milk Products Technology: Selection of raw materials, assembling, production, processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food; Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products; butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products-BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control, nutritive properties, packaging, processing and operational control costs.
4.5  Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management. Vitamin-D soft and other special milks.
4.6  Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.

5.  Meat Technology:
5.1  Physical and chemical characteristics of meat-meat emulsions-methods of preservation of meat-curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products; meat products and formulations.

PAPER-II

GENETICS AND ANIMAL BREEDING:
1.  Principles of Animal Breeding: Introduction to Animal Breeding; probability; HardyWeinberg law, its application and significance; phenotypic variance and its partitioning; heritability and its estimation; repeatability; principles of inbreeding; coefficient of relationship; out breeding and heterosis.
1.1  Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Measured variance of population; approach to equilibrium under random mating; genetic and environmental sub-divisions of phenotypic variance; contrast between Mendelism and blending inheritance; genetic nature of differences between groups; resemblances between relatives in population; mating at random; forces affecting gene frequency; their impact in animal breeding; heritability and repeatability, methods and precision of estimation; aids to selection; breeding for threshold characters; selection index selection.
1.2  Breeding Systems: Biometrical relations between relatives; mating systems; inbreeding; out breeding; phenotypic assortative mating; general and specific combining ability; choice of effective breeding plans; calculation of inbreeding coefficients using Wright’s and Malacot’s approach; co-variance among relatives; decreases of heterozygosity on inbreeding; problems of detection of non-additive genetic variance.

Current status of hilly livestock; breedingstrategies for breeds of hilly tract with particular reference to Gaddi sheep and goat, Biangi sheep, Chegu goat, Spiti, Zanskar and Bhutia breeds of horse, yak and Mithun; conservation methods for the hill germplasm; genotype environment interaction.

Different types of methods of selection, their effectiveness and limitations,  selection indices, construction of selection in retrospect, evaluation of genetic gains through selection, correlated response in animal experimentations.

Approach to estimation of general and specific combining ability, dialete, fraction of dialete crosses reciprocal recurrent selection, inbreeding and hybridization.

2.  Health and Hygiene:
2.1  Anatomy of ox and fowl histological techniques, freezing, paraffin embedding etc. Preparation and staining of blood films. Common histological stains, embryological of cow.
2.2  Physiology of blood its constituents, circulatory system, respiration, excretion, Endocrine glands in physiology of animal health and diseases.
2.3  General knowledge of pharmacology drugs in Veterinary Therapeutics.
2.4  Vety-hygiene with respect to Water supply (contamination, prevention, purification), Atmospheric pollution, stray and fallen animals. Disposal of sewage and farm refuses fallen animals and control recycling from surplus, wastes etc. Sanitation of animal houses and its effect on animal health and production. Method of prevention and control of air and water borne diseases of man and animal.
2.5  Milk Hygiene.
3. Meat Hygiene.
3.1 Zoonoses and human health.
3.2  Most common cattle and poultry diseases, their mode of spread, prevention and treatment etc. Immunity. General principles and problems of milk and meat infection jurisprudence in Vety. Practice. Medicinal use of synthetic and natural Harmones in Vety. Practice.
3.3  Duties and role of veterinarians in a slaughter house to provide their meat that is produced under ideal hygienic conditions.
3.4  By-products from slaughter houses and their economic utilization.
3.5  Methods of collection, preservation and processing of hormonal glands for medicinal use.
4. Extension: Animal Husbandry development programmes. Operation Flood. Role of cooperatives in dairy development in India, PRA and RRA. TRYSEM. Extension teaching methods and use of audio-visual based teaching. Extension Programme Planning and Evaluation. Transfer of Technology. Diffusion and adoption of technology. Livestock Marketing Extension.
4.1 Different possibilities and methods to provide self-employment to educate youth under rural conditions.
4.2 Cross breeding as a method of upgrading the local cattle.

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