[Himachal GK] Shimla Wild Life Sanctuaries

photo : LeopardShimla Water Catchment Sanctuary :

Altitude : varies from 1900 meters to 2620 meters.
Annual Rainfall : mean annual rainfall is 1600 mm.
Temperature : temprature varies from -5 to 32°C.
Area : 1,025.3 hectares ( 10.25 sq. km. ).
Location : nearest town is Shimla.
Approaches : Shimla to inside sanctuary.

It was first notified as a sanctuary on 29th July 1958 and re-notified on 4th December 1982. This is one of the few sanctuaries in Himachal free from habitation, this area has been preserved since the last centuary as the catchment area providing water to Shimla town. It was earlier the part of the Koti State and came under the State control in 1947-48. It has perhaps the highest density of 'Koklas Pheasant' among the State's national parks and sanctuaries.

Flora
The vegetation consists predominately of temperate coniferous forest, dominated by Deodar and mixed at lower elevations with White Oak and patches of Chir Pine and at higher elevations with blue pine, green oak and spruce.

Fauna ( Mammals )
Leopard Cat, barking Deer, Musk deer, Goral, common Langur, Leopard, Rhesus Macaque, Marten, Indian Porcupine, Sambar and Squirrel.



Daranghati Sanctuary :


Altitude : varies from 2100 meters to 3315 meters.
Annual Rainfall : mean annual rainfall is 750 mm.
Temperature : temprature varies from 8 to 17°C.
Area : 16,740 hectares ( 167.40 sq. km. ).
Location : near Rampur Bushahr.
Approaches : Shimla to Rampur.

This sanctuary forms an important habitat for Musk Deer, Himalayan Tahr and Pheasants. The area was earlier a hunting reserve of the former Raja of Bhushahr State. The sanctuary is in two segments, with villages and cultivated area in between. Animal movement takes place over snow clad peaks into the Rakchham Chitkul Sanctuary in the south-east and Talra sanctuary in the south.

Flora
Forest Types include Ban Oak forest, Moist Deodar forest, western mixed Coniferous, moist temperate Deciduous, Kharsu Oak, dry broad leaved and coniferous, dry temprate coniferous and Himalayan sub-alpine forests.

Fauna ( Mammals )
Himalayan Black Bear, Brown Bear, Himalayan Palm Civet, Barking Deer, Musk Deer, Flying Fox, Goral, Indian Hare, stripped Hyena, Himalayan Ibex, Leopard, Himalayan yellow throated Marten, Serow, Blue Sheep, common giant flying Squirrel, Himalayan Tahr and Himalayan Weasel. Locally threated species are Himalayan Tahr and western Tragopan.


Chail Sanctuary :

Altitude : varies from 701 meters to 2180 meters.
Annual Rainfall : mean annual rainfall is 1602 mm.
Temperature : temprature varies from 4 to 28°C.
Area : 10,854.36 hectares ( 108.54 sq. km. ).
Location : nearest town is Chail. this sanctuary falls in district Solan and district Shimla
Approaches : Shimla to Chail or Solan to Chail.

It was notified a sanctuary on 21st March 1976. Formerly the game reserve of the erstwhile Maharaja of Patiala, it is now heavily degraded. Yet it contains one of the world's most significant population of the greatly threatened Cheer Pheasant as well as a herd of European Red Deer, introduced half a century ago by the former Maharaja of Patiala.

Flora
Forest Types include Himalayan sub-tropical pine forests, Banoak forest and Moru Oak forest. The dominant forest tree is the white or Silver Oak, mixed at lower altitude with Chil Pine. Tree Rhododendron forms pure stands in a few places and Deodar have been sown in some areas.

Fauna ( Mammals )
Himalayan Black Bear, Indian Wild Bear, Leopard Cat, Barking Deer, Red Deer, Goral, Indian Hare, common Langur, Leopard, Rhesus Macaque, Himalayan yellow throated Marten, Indian Porcupine, Sambar, common Giant and Kashmiri flying Squirrel, Locally threatened species are Leopard, Chir or Cheer Pheasant and Red Deer. A Cheer Pheasant breeding and rehabilitation program has been started in 1988.

Churadhar Sanctuary :


Altitude :
varies from 2000 meters to 3647 meters.
Annual Rainfall : mean annual rainfall is 1602 mm.
Temperature : temprature varies from 4 to 28°C.
Area : 5,615 hectares ( 56.15 sq. km. ).
Location : nearest town is Nohra. this sanctuary falls between district Sirmaur and district Shimla
Approaches : Shimla to Nohra to inside sanctuary or Sirmaur to Nohra to inside sanctuary.

It was notified a sanctuary on 15th November, 1985. One of the state's newest sanctuaries, Churadhar has amongst the last good stretches of forest left in Southern Himachal Pradesh. In the past, it was the stronghold of Musk Deer, now at the point of local extinction, Churadhar still contains good habitat for Monal and other Pheasants. The sancuary gets its name from Chur Peak or Churdhar Peak, on the top of which sits a majectic statute of Lord Shiva commanding a breathtaking view of the valleys and forests below.

Flora
Forest Types include western mixed coniferous forests, Khasru Oak forest and Alpine forests. Deodar and Oak are the famous species.

Fauna ( Mammals )
Himalayan Black Bear, Indian Wild Bear, barking Deer, Musk Deer, Goral, common Langur, Leopard, Rhesus Macaque, Himalayan Mouse-Hare and Indian Porcupine. Musk Deer has been severely depleted by hunting.



Majathal Sanctuary :

Altitude : varies from 900 meters to 1966 meters.
Annual Rainfall : mean annual rainfall is 1040 mm.
Temperature : temprature varies from 1 to 29°C.
Area : 3,938.86 hectares ( 39.39 sq. km. ).
Location : nearest town is Shimla.
Approaches : Shimla to inside sanctuary or Solan to Shimla to inside sanctuary.

It was first notified as a sanctuary in 1962 and re-notified on 27th March 1974. This Oak forest area is located in the catchment of the Satluj River and contains typical low altitude western Himalayan flora and fauna. Studies have established this sanctuary to be possibly the single most important locality for chir or cheer pheasant in the world.

Flora
Only Ban Oak forest.

Fauna ( Mammals )
Himalayan Black Bear, Indian Wild Bear, jungle Cat, common Palm Civet, Himalayan Palm Civet, barking Deer, Goral, Jackal, common Langur, Leopard, Rhesus Macaque, Himalayan yellow throated Marten and Sambar. A species believed to be locally threatened is the Cheer Pheasant.


Talra Sanctuary :

Altitude : varies from 1500 meters to 3324 meters.
Annual Rainfall : mean annual rainfall is 874.5 mm.
Temperature : temprature varies from -7 to 28°C.
Area : 4,093.31 hectares ( 40.49 sq. km. ).
Location : nearest town Jubbal.
Approaches : Shimla to Jubbal to inside sanctuary.

It was first notified as a sanctuary in 1962 and re-notified on 27th March 1974. This sanctuary was formerly a popular hunting spot and continues to have human pressure in the form of hunting spot and in the form of commercial logging and grazing. Only a few good patches of wildlife habitat reportedly remain. primarily in steep and inaccessible areas, still harbouring a population of Musk Deer and five species of pheasants.

Flora
Forest Types include lower western Himalayan temperate and west Himalayan upper oak and fir forests.

Fauna ( Mammals )
Himalayan Black Bear, barking Deer, Musk Deer, Goral, common Langur and Leopard.

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