[History] Post Mauryan Art and Architecture

  • Caves, stupas, sculptures continued
  • Sculpture making reached its climax during this stage
Caves
Now 2 kinds of caves originated – 1. Chaitya 2. Vihar

Chaitya
  • Prayer hall for monks
  • Karla Chaitya in Mahrashtra
Vihar
  • Residence / rest places of Monk
  • Nashik Vihar, Ajanta caves (29 caves – 4 chaitya and 24 vihars)
Stupas
  • Now more enlarged stupas were built
  • Gateways or Toranas were now beautifully carved
Sculpture
In this phase – 3 schools developed with regard to sculpture making

  • Gandhara
  • Mathura
  • Amravati
Basis Gandhara Mathura Amaravati
Outside Influence Greek influence. Also called Indo Greek Art No outside influence – indigenous indigenous
Type of Sandstone Grey Sandstone/Bluish grey sandstone Spotted Red Sandstone White marbles
Religious influence Mainly Biddhist All 3- Hinduism, Jain, Buddhist Mainly Buddhist
Promoted by Kushana Dynasty Kushana Dynasty Satvahanas and Icchavakus
Areas Northwest Frontier Mathura, Sonkh, Kankalitila (Mostly Jain) Krishna Godavari lower valley
Features of sculptures
  • Spiritual Buddha(sad buddha) represents calmness
  • Bearded Buddha, Moustache
  • Wearing Less ornaments
  • Having wavy hair
  • Large forehead
  • Buddha is seated in position of Yogi
  • Having large ears
  • Protuberance on his head
Two Schools:
  • Early – Bluish – grey sandstone
  • Later – Use of mud and lime plaster
  • Delighted Buddha ie not spiritual
  • Head and face shaven
  • Muscularity
  • Dress is tight, energetic body
  • Buddha face reflects grace
  • seated in Padmasana
  • Right hand in Abhaya Mudra raised above shoulders.
  • Left hand on thigh
  • Buddha surrounded by two Bodhisattavas – 1. Padmapani – Holding lotus 2. Vajrapani – Holding vajra
  • Halo around the head of Buddha decorated with geometrical motifs
  • Images of Vaishnava (mainly vishnu and his various forms)
  • Shiva represented through ling and Mukhaling
  • Jain:Sculpture of Mahavira
  • Protuberance on head
  • Reflects narrative
  • Theme based on life of Buddha as Jataka stories
  • Stories of previous birth of Buddha both in human as well as animal form



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