[Internal Security] Azaadi in Kashmir

Q. “The popular rise of the slogan for azaadi in Kashmir in the late 1990s was on the account of religious fundamentalism which was left unchallenged and an Indian state which viewed a community merely as pawns in their geostrategic game.” Critically comment.

Kashmir which remained highly disputed region of south Asia was always volatile since early 1930s. Earlier muslim majority was fighting for Hindu minority rule (Maharaja Hari Singh). Later a muslim elite emerged in the form of Shiekh Mohammed Abdullah, who in early 1950s along with Nehru eluded kashmiri muslims of almost kashmir independence within Indian framework. After defeating pak in 1947 and UN brokerered ceasefire in 1948 Nehru retreated from his earlier promise of plebisite in Kashmir so the deal b/w Shiekh nd Nehru failed and Nehru even has to jail his close frnd sheikh.

The popular rise of the slogan for azaadi in Kashmir in the late 1990s came riding on a consolidation of the Muslim identity together with the sidelining of voices that framed this demand in ecumenical terms. It is difficult to apportion exact blame for the sudden exodus of Kashmiri Pandits from the Valley starting on the night of 19 January 1990, but it falls largely to the account of a Muslim fundamentalism which was left unchallenged and an Indian state which viewed this community merely as pawns in their geostrategic game.

Since then fundamentalism against Indian state aroused in valley which cought fire in late 1980s with the help of Pakistan.

The reasons of 1990s Uprising :-

1) Pak support and massive inflitration.

2) Fundamentalism was already growing since 1960s in kashmiri muslims; parties like Hurriyat, JKLF, Peoples liberation front.

3) Arm and fighters from Afganistan.

4) US and PAK. supported uprising, even then US ambessodor openly supported kashmir independence.

5) Indian state : Indian state was also responsible, which has failed to meet aspirations of ppls. When we say aspirations it shd not be confused with developmental aspiration ( as kashmir in 1980s was far more developed than NE or even central states like MP,UP as far as education, life style, income etc are concerned) rather kashmiri ppl wanted more autonomy (more effective implementation of art. 370). Even what i think most of the Urban educated ppl of kashmir (presicely 10 districts of valley) wanted independence.

6) Influence and motivation from USSR disintegartion.

Solution to Kashmir problem :

Being a nationalist, i stick to unilateral solution (means Pak shdn't be involved) of kashmir. As kashmir being integral part of India, their is no point in talking abt its indepence.

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