[Himachal GK] Important Details and History of District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh

Details about District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh :


  • Headquarter: Kalpa
  • Altitude: 2769 meters
  • Languages spoken: Kinnauri (Hamskad), Sangnaur, Jangiam, Shumecho etc.
  • The District Kinnaur is situated 77°45’ and 79°00’35” East Longitude and between 31°55’50” and 32°05’15” North Latitude.
  • The largest village of the district Kinnaur is ‘Bhaba’.
  • There are many prominent valleys in District Kinnaur i.e. The Yula Valley, The Mulgaon Valley, The Satluj Valley, The Hangrang or Spiti Valley, The Ropa or Shyaso or Sunam Valley, The Baspa or Sangla Valley, The Tidong Valley, The Wangpoo or Bhaba Valley, The Gyathing or Nesang Valley, The Pejur or Lippa Valley, The Kashang Valley, Ribba Valley etc.
  • The historic village Kamru (Mone) is situated in Sangla Valley.
  • Tidong Valley is called as ‘a scene of savage grandeur’.
  • The River Satluj flows through the district Kinnaur.
  • The lakes in the district Kinnaur are Nako Lake and Sarong Lake.
  • Ribba Valley is famous for grapes. 

     
    Fig : Kinnaur District


Some Important Details :

Population As per 2011 Census
Male
42,173
Female
36,161
Rural
78,334
Urban
NIL
Sex Ratio
857 (No. of females per 1000 males)
Density of Population
12 per sq. km.

Climate
Temperature
[With respect to Kalpa for the year 2003]
  
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Min
(in deg cent)
-4.7
-7.2
-4.2
-0.2
2.5
8.2
10.2
10.2
4.5
1.5
-2.8
-6.5
Max
(in deg cent)
16.1
13.1
20.1
23.1
25.2
25.7
25.3
24.4
24.6
21.4
20.0
15.9
Total Rainfall(in mm)
0.00
0.00
23.9
83.5
59.6
28.2
78.2
32.5
26.8
04.9
0.00
0.00
Total Snowfall
(in cms)
45.5
139.9
85.6
16.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
06.4
75.1

Literacy Rate of Rural Population- As Per 2011 Census
Male Literacy
84.3 %
Female Literacy
64.4%

Geographical Area Sq. Kms.
Forest Land
458297.47 Hect.
Cultivated Land
9355 Hect
NonCultivable
614387 Hect.
Altitude
Between 2350m to 6816m above sea level.
Longitude
Between 77° 45' and 79° 00' 35'' East Longitude
Latitude
Between 31° 05' 50'' and 32° 05' 15'' North Latitude
Major Rivers
Satluj, Spiti & Baspa                         

Administrative Setup
No. of Sub Divisions
3 - Pooh,Kalpa,Nichar
No. of Tehsils
5 - Sangla,Pooh,Nichar,Moorang,Kalpa.
Sub Tehsil
1 - Yangthang
Development Blocks
3 - Nichar,Kalpa,Pooh
Panchayats
65
Villages
660


Education
Primary Schools
189
Middle Schools
37
High Schools
22
Sr. Sec. Schools
22
Colleges
1-Govt. College R/Peo.
Medical/
Engineering Colleges
NIL
Others
ITI R/Peo, DIET R/Peo.
University
NIL


Animal Husbandry
Hospitals
18 (17 providing AI Facilities)
Dispensaries
39 (30 equiped with AI Facilities)
AI Centres
No special AI Centre.
Poultry Farms
2
Sheep Breeding Farm
1
Mobile Vetnary Dispensaries
1



Cattle Population
As per Cattle Census
Cows
23133
 Buffalos
9
                            Sheep
74386
                        Goats
34635
Yak
339
Poultry
5237
Others
3687




Health Setup                                                                                                
Regional Hospitals
1(Reckong Peo)       
Civil Hospital
1(Chango)
Community Health Centres
3(Pooh, Nichar, Sangla)
Primary Health Centres
21
Sub-Centres
31
Ayurvedic Hospitals
1(Reckong Peo         
Ayurvedic Health Centres
27
Ayurvedic Dispensaries
27
Homepathy
1(Reckong Peo)


Industrial Units
Large Enterprises
NIL
Micro/Small Enterprises
539
Investment
463 Lakhs
Employment
1647(Numbers)1584himachalies+63 Non Himachalies
Type of Enterprises
Major: Handlooms and Handicrafts(These are household activites. Shawls, Pattis, Carpets are woven on Handllooms and Wooden/Metal Craft depicting various features of Tibetan Art is prevalent in district Kinnaur)

Minor: Fabrications (Steel and Wooden Furniture, Food Processing, Auto Repair, Oil Extraction Units, Wool Carding etc.)
Handloom Units
59


General
Number of Post Offices
Head Post Office
Reckong Peo.
Sub Post Offices
Bhavanagar, Kalpa, Leo, Moorang, Nichar, Pooh, Sangla, Ribba, Spillo, Tapri, Katgaon
Branch Post Offices
72
Nationalized Bank Branches
Punjab National Bank
R/Peo,Karcham,Nigulsari,Kalpa
UCO Bank
Skibba, Yangthang, Katgaon, Sungra, Sangla, Tapri, Spillo, Reckong Peo
State Bank of India
Bhawanagar, Pooh, Moorang, Lippa, Giabong, Chango, R/Peo.
Union Bank
Nichar
Land Development Bank
R/Peo, Pooh
Name of the Lead Bank
Punjab National Bank
Cooperative Bank Branches
Kalpa, R/Peo, Moorang, Nichar, Pooh, Sangla,Tapri, Pangi, Katgaon, Sungra
Petrol Pumps
Reckong Peo, Powari, Tapri
Major Crops
Kharif
Cereals
Maize
  

Pulses
Rajmash,Mash


Others
Olga,Fafra,Koda,Cholai

Rabi
Cereals
Wheat,Barley
Vegetables
Tomato, Brinjal, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Onion, Chilies, Capsicum, Peas, Reddish, Turnip, Potatoes.
Horticulture
Apples, Chilgoza, Apricots, Almonds, Walnuts, Pears, Grapes, Figs, Kiwi fruit.
Electrified Villages
85%
Flaura and Fauna
Portions of Kinnaur are situated high in the Himalaya, where vegetation is sparse and consists primarily of hardy grasses. Alpine species such as juniper, pine, fir, cypress, and rhododendron can be found at elevations between 3,500 and 5,000 meters, primarily in Middle Kinnaur. At lower altitudes, temperate-climate trees are found, including oak, chestnut, maple, birch, alder, magnolia, apple, and apricot.
Yaks and dzos are reared by local farmers in the higher areas. Scattered populations of the Himalayan black bear and small ponies may also be found.


 
Administrative Setup :


Single Line Administration

The deputy commissioner is the pivot round whom the entire administration revolves in the district. He wields wider administrative and financial powers than any other districts of Himachal Pradesh. This system is known as Single Line administration introduced in December, 1963. Under this system the Deputy Commissioner writes the annual confidential reports of all the officers in the district. In 1965 the deputy Commissioner was delegated the power to transfer within the district class III and IV employees within the district in consolation with the head of the office concerned.


History of Kinnaur :

Kinnaur surrounded by the Tibet to the east, in the northeast corner of Himachal Pradesh, about 235 kms from Shimla is a tremendously beautiful district having the three high mountains ranges i.e. Zanskar, Greater Himalayas and Dhauladhar, enclosing valleys of Sutlej, Spiti, Baspa and their tributaries. All the valleys are strikingly beautiful. The slopes are covered with thick wood, orchards, fields and picturesque hamlets. The much religious Shivlinga lies at the peak of Kinner Kailash mountain. The beautiful district was opened for the outsiders in 1989. The old Hindustan-Tibet road passes through the Kinnaur valley along the bank of river Sutlej and finally enters Tibet at Shipki La Pass. And it is not only the scenic beauty which appeals to the young and old alike but also the life styles of the people, their culture, heritage, customs and traditions.

The much honest people which have strong culture and beliefs generally follow the Buddhism and Hinduism believe that the Pandavas came and resided in the land while in the exile. In the ancient mythology the people of Kinnaur are known as Kinners, the halfway between men and gods. Thousands years old monasteries still exist in the area. Both the Buddhists and Hindus live in perfect harmony symbolising the traditional brotherhood and  friendship of the people of both the faiths.

The apples, chilgoza and other dry fruits are grown here are world famous. The high terrain here give way to great adventures sports of all kinds. Beautiful trekking routes includes the 'Parikarma of Kinner Kailash'. Here is also the Beautiful Nako lake and three famous wild life sanctuaries.
  
The district a erstwhile known as Chini tehsil of the former Mahasu district, came into being as an independent district w.e.f. 1st May, 1960. Prior to merger of State on the eve of independence, Kinnaur valley was a part of erstwhile Bushahr State which had its headquarters at Rampur.

Early History :
In the absence of authentic historical record the early history of Kinnaur region is obscure and the reference of the Kinnaura or Kannaura and there land is by the large confined to legends and mythological accounts. It would be worthwhile to look at the region of Kinnaur alongwith general conditions of northern India particularly the hilly regions of Himalayas during the period from 6th century B.C. India was divided in to sixteen geat janpadas and several smallers ones. Among them Gandhara, Kamboja, Kuru, Koshal, Mull, Vajji, Panchal, Sakya were either in the southern Himalayas ranges or had territories extended up to Himalayans ranges. Among the states that were flourishing in the six century B.C. The kingdom of Magdha was the first to make a successful bid for supermacy under Bimbisara.

Its emperor belonging to Sunga, Nanda and Maurya dynasties carried their banners upto the inhabitated parts of inner Himalayan region.Chandragupta Maurya brought about its political unification under one scepter, negotiated an alliance with Parvataka (Himalayan King) before empire building. With the help of several frontier tribes such as Kiratas, Kambojas, Panasikas and Valhika, he built up the great Mauryan Empire.The empire of Ashoka extended upto natural boundaries of India and beyond that in the west. After the collapse of the Mauryan empire the Kushanas established an extensive empire within and beyond India in the northwest. Emperor Kanishkas hegemony spread over Kashmir and the Central Asian regions of Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan. His hold extended upto the territory of the Inner Himalayas and Kinnaur must have been the part of this empire. In the meantime northern India was divided into a number of small kingdoms and autonomous tribal states. Under such a divided country the Gupta empire grew. Samundragupta's empire included the territories of Rohilkhand, Kumaon, Garhwal, Nepal and Assam. Its northern boundary was along the high Himalayas. Kinnaur must have been included in it too. Early in the seventh century A.D., Harsha came to power at Thaneshwar in A.D. 606. During the course of four decades he had established a most powerful empire in India. All the existing kingdoms of Kapisa, Kashmir, Kuluta, Satadru, Mon-li-pa-lo (Ladakh) and Suwarnagotra (in the high Himalayas) were incorporated in his empire. After the death of Harsha in A.D. 647 the country was once again divided into old principalities of the sixth century B.C.

It appears that the princes being adventurous owing to territorial greed, first went to these high hills and established themselves on varying territories in accordance with their powers. Particularly the area between Satluj, its tributaries and Baspa upto Mansarover was under the rule of Thakkers from very early times. They were known by the place they had occupied like that of Chini Thakur and Kamru Thakur, under the overall suzerainty of Mauryan and Gupta kings later on. It was the Thakur of Kamru who proved strongest of all the other chiefs of the area and annexed their territories by force sometime after the fall of the Kanauj Empire and laid the foundation of the state of Bushahr, to which the region of Kinnaur belonged till the dissolution of the state very recently.

Medieval History :
By the beginning of the fourteenth century the entire area of Kinnaur was divided in seven parts, locally called sat khund. There was further splitting up of and the area came to be covered with many small hegemonies, which were constantly warring against, or allying with, each other as conditions required. The neighbouring Bhots also found time to jump into the fray and did not desist from creating trouble. There are various forts like labrang, Morang, and Kamru forts telling the story of that age.
          
In the medieval period, though some of the hill states such as Kangra, Chamba and Sirmaur were attacked and made tributary to the Mughal emperor at Delhi, Bushahr state could not be reached by any adventurer of that time.The consolidation and addition of territories of the Bushahr state continued during the period also. The Thakoorais of Dulaitoo, Kurungoloo and Kuaitro were annexed about Samwat 1611. Raja Chatar Singh who brought the whole area of the erswhile Bushahr State under his control. He was considered most virtuous ruler during his reign. Nothing particular known about his successor Kalyan Singh. The successor of Kalyan Singh according to generalogy was Raja Kehri Singh. He is the hightest skilled warrior of the time. Kehri Singh's successor were not of the same mattle. Besides mention in genealogy of Bushahr State, nothing is known about Vijay Singh and  Udai Singh. It is said that one Raja Ram Singh made Rampur his capital in place of Sarahan and Kamru. During his reign a series of contests began with the Raja of Kulu and Bushahr had lost the territory of Seraj. It seems that the territories which were annexed by Raja Kehri Singh became free during the weak rule of Raja Rudra Singh. But his successor Ugar Singh took them over by force of arms.

Recent History :
According to Punjab states Gazetteer-Shimla hill States from 1803 to 1815 the earstwhile states of Bushahr faced the menace of Gurkha invasions. Immediate after the death of Raja Kehri Singh, The Gurkhas made massive attack on Bushahr. The minor ruler and his mother who could not withstand the attack fled away to Namru leaving behind a rich treasury at Sarahan. The Gurkhas looted the treasury and completely destroyed the records of the state. Keeping Gurkhas of Nepal had extended their dominions greatly during the end of the eighteen century. Amar Singh Thapa, the Gurkha leader went up to kangra valley. He was drawn from the valley by the superior forces of Ranjit Singh and those of raja Sansar Chand of Kangra. The tract between theSatluj and Jamuna came under British protection by the treaty of 1809 between Ranjit Singh and the British Govt. Thus the British Government took positive step to expel the Gurkhas and after a long and desperate struggle, completely defeated Amar Singh Thapa on 15 th April, 1815. On the conclusion of the Gurkha war Raja Mahendra Singh was granted a sanad on 6th November,1815. It gave Khaneti and Delath thakurais to Bushahr and a part of Rawin, which was a Distt. of the state was transfered to Keonthal, Kumharsain was constituted a separate Thakurai.

From the foregoing account it would appear that during the princely days Kinnaur valley acted as a bulwark to the Bushahr state. However with the lapse of paramountcy, the Kinnaur then known as Chini tehsil was merged to form a part of then Mahasu district. The pargana Atharahs Bish comprised of village Nichar, Sungra, Kangos, Ponda, Baro, Bari, Tranda, Chaura village with patwar circle at Ponda. The Paragana Bish consisted of the revenue estates of Nathpa, Kandhar, Barakamba, Chhotakamba, Garshu and Rupi with patwar circle at Rupi were in Rampur tehsil.

In fact then Chini tehsil covered the entire Kinnaur valley beyond Wangtu which was created in 1891 by the then ruler Tika Raghunath Singh. Thus 1891 onwards Chinni tehsil continued to be in existence with its vast area beyond Wangtu uptill 1960. Since 1947 it was a tehsil of the then Mahasu district. By 1960 the importance of reorganising border area was realised and consequently in view of ethnic and cultural considerations the areas which were partly in Rampur tehsil were reorganised into a separate District forming the present Kinnaur district.


Tourism in Kinnaur :

A mountainous area, ranging in altitude from 2,320 to 6,816 meters, Kinnaur is one of the smallest districts in India by population. It is famous for the Kinner Kailash, a mountain sacred to Hindus, close to the Tibetan border.

Climate
Most of Kinnaur enjoys a temperate climate due to its high elevation, with long winters from October to May, and short summers from June to September. The lower parts of the Sutlej Valley and the Baspa Valley receive monsoon rains. The upper areas of the valleys fall mainly in the rain-shadow area. These areas are considered to be arid regions, similar to the climate of Tibet.

Best Time to Visit

Kinnaur is a beautiful district to visit. Great natural scenes, rivers, valleys, high mountains, lakes and green pastures creates a mesmerizing scenes for tourists. Best time to visit the district is from April to October.

Weather during the year
Due to the Geographical conditions Kinnaur has long winter from October to May (the snowy season) and Summer from June to September. From April to May is Spring and September to October is Autumn. Only the Baspa valley, lower region of the Satluj valley and the area south of the Great Himalaya receives monsoon rains, while in the upper areas monsoon showers progressively decreases.

Where to Shop
Kinnaur is famous for its Handloom and Handicraft items like shawls, caps, mufflers, article of wood carving, metal work and silver & gold ornaments . Kinnaur is also famous for apples, almonds, chilgoza, ogla, apricots and grapes. There are many wholesale shops at Kalpa, Reckong Peo, Karchham, Tapri etc. Besides this the co-operative societies, small production-cum-training centres and Khadi gram udyog centres are looking after the local products like gudmas, shawls,wool, neoza, zira, etc. Also there are many retail price shops in every village. Local fairs, mela and festivals are the main source of shopping.

Adventure Tourism
Kinnaur has tremendous scope of adventure tourism. There are many trekking routes in the district. Ski slopes are available at Kalpa and rock climbing can also be started in this district. Walking has been a means of recreation and physical fitness. Trekking is essentially walking. In ancient times people walked through the dense., untouched forests and they walked across unknown passes and mountains in search of grazing grounds and game. Numerous passes connect the two valleys across the range. These passes have legends and even today they are mysterious, challenging and revealing to the world. The valleys have some of the most interesting meadows, view points, lakes and lush green pastures to add to its beauty and mystery. Chir, deodar, blue pine, rhododendrons and junipers covers its slopes up to 11,500 fts. numerous tiny colourful birds dwell in the forest.

Tourist Information Centre

The information regarding tourism can be gathered from the Tourist Information centre located at Deputy Commissioner Office, Recong Peo.

Permits for Foreigners

Permits for foreigners visiting Kinnaur are available from the various Offices. These offices include the office of MHA, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh; DM Concerened/ITBP/Spl. Commissioner (Tourism), Govt. of Himachal Pradesh/ Resident Commissioner Himachal Pradesh, Delhi/DGP, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla. The places open for tourists under PAP include Poo, Khab, Sumdo, Dhankar, Tabo Gompa, Kaza, Moorang, Dabling.


Places of Interest in Kinnaur : 

Kalpa
Kalpa is situated at an altitude of 2759 m from the sea level, on the old Hindustan Tibet Road at a distance of 260 km from Shimla. Earlier it was the District Headquarter of Kinnaur. It is 14 kms. and half an hour's drive from District Headquarter Reckong Peo. It has all the characteristics of a heritage village. Kalpa came into prominence in the wake of British Governor General Lord Dalhousie's visit in th 19th century. The Narayan-Nagani temple is an exemplary of local craftmanship. There are couple of Buddhist monasteries at Kalpa including the Hu-Bu-Ian-Car Gompa, said to be founded it by Rinchensang-Po (950-1055AD).Kalpa is dramatically located close to the foot of 6050 meter high Kinner Kailash. This is the legendary winter home of Shiva. This is a spectacular sight early in the morning as the rising sun touches the snowy peaks with crimson and gold light.

Reckong Peo
Reckong Peo is situated at an altitude of 2670 m from the sea level, located 235 km from Shimla. It is the District Headquarter having a panoramic view of Kinner Kailash. Kinner Kailash mountain is regarded as one of the mythical homes of Lord Shiva, here is a 79 feet high rock formation that resembles Sivalinga. This Sivalinga changes the colour as the day passes. Also visible on the stretch is the peak of Raldang (5499 m). Reckong Peo has many hotels and rest houses. There is a Buddhist Monasteries in the Reckong Peo.

Sangla
Sangla, a populous village, situated on the right bank of the Baspa river, is famous for its high fertile soil, at an elevation of 2621 m above the sea level and falls at a distance of 17 km from Karcham. It is built on a slope with the house rising one above the other; the scene being closed by the gigantic Raldang peaks towering behind. The forest scenery all-arround and the eternal snow peaks are picturesque. Journey from Karcham onwards is enjoyable and adventurous throughout the valley. The natural scenery all arround and the eternal snow view are picturesque and charming. It is located in the famous Baspa valley. The whole of the Baspa valley is one of the prettiest valleys mainly due to its flat terrain and green vegetation on the slopes which are not very steep.

Chango
Chango (3058m) : At a distance of 122 km from Kalpa, is a collection of 4 hamlets in Pargna Shuwa, sub-tehsil Hangrang on the left bank of the river Spiti. It is encircled on every side by high hills which is witness to the presence of a former lake. Buddhism is generally practiced here but there are some local Hindu deities too namely Gyalbo, Dablaand Yulsa.

Chhitkul
Chhitkul(3450m):This is the last and highest village in the Baspa valley. It is situated on the right bank of the Baspa river. There is a road along the left bank from Karchham. There are three temples of local goddess Mathi, the main one said to have been constructed about 500 years ago by a resident of Garhwal. The square ark of the goddess, is made of walnut wood and is covered with clothes and surmounted by a tuft of yak tail. Two poles called bayanga are inserted into it by means of which it is carried. The goddess has a mouthpiece.

Kothi
Kothi is also called Koshtampi is an ancient large village in tehsil Kalpa, little below the Kalpa and nearby Reckong Peo. The village is environed by the fields and fruit trees punctuated by vineyards. It is over shadowed by Kinner Kailash peak which forms a magnificent backdrops. The village with its attractive temple, tanks and gracious willows makes an altogether lovely landscape. The goddess Shuwang Chandika temple is in the village. The local people hold the goddess in great reverence and consider her to be one of the most powerful goddess.There is an image of gold seated in an ark. It is danced up and down by four persons at the time of worship.There is yet another temple dedicated to Bhairon.

Leo
About 105 kms from Reckong Peo pearched on small rocky eminence, on the right bank of Spiti river, and at the confluence of the Lipak torrent flowing from the west is the hqrs. of sub-tehsil Hangrang in pooh sub-division.At the east of it is an insulated rock once surmounted by a fort, now in ruins considerable It occupies a slip of soil embosomed by sterile masses of the earth glowing under the ardour of a tropical sun. From such a situation the climate has acquired a delicious softness.

Lippa
Lippa(2438m): Situated near the left bank of Taiti stream. The grass of this village is said to be found to be very nourishing to cattle and horses. Ibex are said to be found in the nearby forest. There is a game sanctuary. There are three Buddhist temples dedicated to Galdang Chhoikar, Dunguir and Kangyur. Apart from the Buddhist temples there is yet another old sanctuary dedicated to Tangtashu, a local deity.

Moorang
Moorang(3591m): Situated above the left bank of Satluj at some distance from the confluence of the Tirang and 39 kms away from the Kalpa. The location is very beautiful and approach to this picturesque village is through apricot orchard. The dell is encircled by the lofty mountains on every side, except westward open to the Satluj, on the bank of which there is an old fort believed to be built by Pandavas. The fort has a square structure situated on a knoll overlooking the Satluj. Its main gate is approachable by a detached ladder. It has a flat roof. The local deity is Urming and there are three structures dedicated to the deity each existing in Thwaring, Garmang and Shilling. Generally these are empty as the ark of the deity remains in the fort. On a sacred day the ark is taken to the above named places. The ark has got 18 'mukh', made of silver, gold and brass. The 18 mukh represents the 18 days of the great epic Mahabharat.

Nichar
Nichar(3150m) : This village is situated between Taranda and Wangtu on the left bank of Satluj about 5 kms above Wangtu.The scenery is enchanting and the climate is noted for its mildness. In the thick forests and rocky glen from this place downward goral and thar antelopes abound in. Black and red bears are also seen in the higher and colder portions of the range. The village deity is goddess Ukha.

Nako
Nako(3663m): Situated above 3 kms above the Hangrang valley road and is 119 kms from Kalpa on the western direction of the huge mountains of Pargial. This is the highest village in the valley and the existence of lake formed out of the masses of the ice and snow above adds beauty to the village.The lake is fringed with willows and populars. Yaks, kine, horses and asses are reared here in abundance. Local village deity is Deodum and another Lagang temple with several idols exist here.There is a staying hut for visitors.There are small, but significant Buddhist temples and a rock is regarded to have the imprints of the saint Padmasambhava. This is the base for the trek to pargial peak and is en-route to the Thashigang monastery, where an image is said to grow hair.

Namgya
Namgya(3048m): Namgya is situated on the left bank of the Satluj river about two kms above the confluence of the Spiti river with the Satluj. It is above 183m and 313m above the bed of the Saltuj river. It is surrounded by frightful barrenness and desolation, though close to the habitation on the opposite bank of a rivulet can be seen field of barley, buckweat, turnips and a few vines and apricots.There is a Buddhist temple named Lagang and four local goddess namely Chola, Bushahru, Dabla and Kuldeo Narain. Each of them has a separate labdak (mouthpiece).

Pooh
Pooh is locally pronounced Spuwa and is tehsil hqrs. It is 71 kms from Reckong Peo. It is situated above the national highway-22 having all modern amenities as well as green fields, vineyards, apricots, almond and grape orchards enhance its beauty. The local god is called Dabla, who neither has any dwelling nor possesses an ark. The only manifestation of the deity is a pole with a small idol set on its upper portion and adorned with yak tail hair and long pieces of coloured cloth. The whole being called Fobrang, it is occasion brought to the Santhang.

Rakchham
Rakchham(3115m): Rakchham is situated on the right bank of the river Baspa. Its name is derived from "Rak" a stone and "Cham" a bridge. It is said that in the earlier time there was a natural stone bridge over the Baspa river hence the name of the village.The site of the village is striking at the western exremity of a glen, and at the base a huge mass of bare rock, which rises abruptly in numerous black spires above the village.

Ribba
Ribba(3745m): Ribba or Rirang is another large populous village at a distance of 14 kms from Moorang, the tehsil hqrs. situated between the villages of Purbani and Rispa. In the local dialect ri stands for Chilgoza and rang means a peak of mountain.This village is situated on the northern flank of the lofty Kinner Kailash group. Its surroundings are full of the trees of edible pine.This as well as another village Rispa are known for their grapes orchards and the alcohol famous grape distilled from the vineyards of Ribba.


Culture & Beliefs:

The People
The present day the Kinnauras do not constitute a homogenous group and display significant territorial and ethnic diversity. For a better understanding of ethnic and cultural distribution, the Kinnaur District may be classified into three territorial units.

Lower Kinnaur comprise area between Chora at the boundary of the Kinnaur District with Rampur Bushahr and Kalpa including Nichar and Sangla valleys. The people of Lower Kinnaur are primarily of the Mediterranean physical type. It is difficult to distinguish them from the people residing in the adjoining Shimla District with whom they have some affinity. The people of lower Kinnaur are mostly Hindus though the ethno-historical factors have resulted in some Buddhist influence.

The middle Kinnaur is the area between Kalpa and Kanam including Moorang tehsil.

The people of middle Kinnaur are of mixed racial strain. Some have marked Mongoloid and others marked Mediterranean features. In some cases there is an admixture of the above two in varying degrees. The inhabitants are Buddhist as well as Hindus. Many people have faith in both the religions. The upper Kinnaur comprises of remaining north-eastern part of the district i.e. the area between Pooh and Hangrang valley extending upto international border with Tibet.

The predominant physical type of upper Kinnaur in the Mongoloid though a few persons with Mediterrean features are also seen in the area around Pooh. Some persons show the blending of Mediterrean and Mongoloid elements in varying degrees. However the people of Hangrang valley are almost universally Mongoloids. They mostly follow Mahayana Buddhist religion.
The Kinnaur society is divided into two broad occupational groups- peasants and the artisans possibly of diverse ethnic origin. These groups are represented by Kanets (Rajputs) and Scheduled Castes.

The Kanets comprise the main cultivating community of the area and use honorific surname Negi. Among the Kanets there are three grades. In the first grade Kanets there are as many as fifty sub-castes, in the second grades there are seventeen sub-castes and in the third grade who work as potter have three sub-castes. Waza Kanets belong to the third grade and are considered inferior among Kanets.

The Scheduled castes include Chamangs and Domangs. Chamangs traditionally make and wove clothes. The Domangs are primarily blacksmiths. There is a third caste called ores. The main profession of Ores is carpentry. In social status the Ores are equal to Domangs. Among the Scheduled castes blacksmiths and carpenters i.e. Domangs and Ores considered themselves superior to Kolis or Chamangs.

Dress
The people of district dress mostly woolen clothes. There clothing is well suited to the climate and is artistic too in its own distinctive way. 

Head dress: of men and women is a round woolen cap called thepang in the local dialect. It is generally of light grey or of white colour with a colour velvet band on the outer fold. Band of green colour is most liked. Crimson blue, yellow etc. may also be worn. 

Men wear woolen shirts called chamn Kurti made of woolen cloth and tailored in the village. Another type of dress which the men wear is Chhuba. It is long woolen coat somewhat resembling an Achkan. A sleeveless woolen jacket worn outside the Chhuba. Men wear woolen churidhar pajama.

Women wrap up a woolen shawl like garment called dohru. The first wrap of dohru is on the back with embridered border displayed throughout its length up to the heels. Darker shades of colours are preferred for dohru. Besides beautiful coloured shawls are also worn by them over their shoulders. Choli a sort of full sleeves blouse is worn by the women. Some of them have decorative lining also. However, now a days wearing of cotton/synthetic salwar, kameez, pants and shirts have become popular among the young Kinnauras.

The traditional footwear worn by the Kinnauras were made of wool and goat hair with sole of goat hide. However, with the passage of the time the indigenous shoes have almost disappeared and wearing of readymade shoes is in vogue.

Houses and Equipment
The housing pattern of upper Kinnaur is different from that of lower Kinnaur.

In the lower Kinnaur the houses are two storeyed and built of stone and wood. These are either slated roofs or having flat roofs made of layers of bhojpatra (tree bark) covered with earth. The door are often folding and open inwards.

In upper Kinnaur the houses are usually built of stone. These are flat roofed and covered with earth. They are ill-built on account of the scarcity of wood. The houses are two storeyed and doors are small. The ground floor is used as cattle shed and upper storey for living purposes. The size and plinth area of the house depends upon the site available for construction. The houses are white washed in lower as well as upper Kinnaur. Besides these traditional houses, now RCC houses built in modern designs are also coming up.

Usually the households have some wooden chest for keeping grain and dried fruits. In addition most of the houses have separate wooden grain storage structures locally called 'Kathar'. Khayarcha is a mat used for sitting purposes, which is made of goats hair. Pakpa which is skin of sheep or goat or some wild animal as often placed on khayarcha for sitting. Traditionally the people used to use utensils made of brass, bronze and aluminum. However, now a days with the increased outside contact they are fast adopting the china crockery and utensils made of stainless steel.

Food Habits
The staple food is wheat, ogla, phafra and barley which are local produce. Besides these kankani, cheena, maize, chollair and bathu are also taken. The principal pulses consumed are peas, black peas, mash and rajmash. The vegetables usually consumed are cabbage, turnips, peas, beans, pumpkin, potato, lady finger and tomato besides some locally available wild green vegetables leaves. They relish rice too which is imported from the plains. Taking a salted tea called cha in the morning and evening is very popular among the Kannauras which is usually taken along with sattu made of parched barley flour.

They are non-vegetarian and relish goat and ram's meat. Taking of alcoholic drinks in their day to day life and also on the ceremonial or festive occasions is quite common among them. Alcohol is distilled at the household level. It is made out of fruits like grapes, apple, pear etc. grown locally and of barley. The Kannauras are very fond of music, dance and singing.

Lifestyle
Generally, Kinner houses have storerooms for keeping grain and dried fruits, and separate wooden grain-storage structures, called kathar. Pakpa, a piece of sheepskin or yakskin, is often placed on the khayarcha mat.

Traditionally Kinners use utensils made of brass and bronze. Modern influences have included the introduction of Chinese crockery, and utensils made of stainless steel and aluminium.

Clothes are mainly of wool. The thepang, a grey woollen cap, is worn with a white velvet band. The Tibetan chhuba, a long woollen coat which resembles an achkan, is worn as well, with a sleeveless woollen jacket.While men wear woollen churidhar pajamas, and tailored woollen shirts such as the chamn kurti, the women wrap themselves up in a dohru. The first wrap of the dohru is based on the back, with embroidered borders displayed throughout its length, which stretches to the heels. Darker shades of colours are preferred for the Dohru, although other beautifully coloured shawls may be worn, usually draped over the shoulders. A choli, another type of full sleeved blouse worn by women, may serve as a decorative lining as well.

The Kinners are classified mainly into two castes: lower and upper caste. Again both of these categories are divided into sub classes. The caste system is more prevalent in the Lower and Middle Kinnaur regions.

Religion
As stated above, the people of lower Kinnaur are mostly Hindus, though some references of Buddhism is also evident. Their most important gods and goddess are Durga or Chandi, Bhairon, Usha or Ukha, Narayan, Vishnu, Badrinath and Bhimakali. The Chamang and Domang in addition have their favourite deities such as Nag Devta. Besides each village has its presiding deity. The inhabitants of middle Kinnaur are Buddhist as well as Hindu. In the northern area Buddhist influence is stronger. The important deity of middle Kinnaur are Chandi,Gauri Shankar, Kansa and Narayanjee. There are some monasteries besides the temples. The village god at Kanam worshipped by people of Buddhist faith is Dabla who has certain features associated with the earlier Bon religion. The image of Dabla is installed alongwith those of Buddha and Guru Rinpoche (Padma Sambhava) in one of the monasteries at Kanam.

The religion of upper Kinnaur is mostly Buddhism, having the institution of Lamaism. They mostly follow Mahayan Buddhism religion. Almost every village has a monastery with Lamas and jomos, who are recruited from amongst the Rajput (Kanet) only. A major part of the district is inhabited by people professing Lama religion. Though venerated by the inhabitants of Nichar and Sangla tehsils, Lama faith does not have a strong hold in these areas.

There are Buddhist temples in many of the villages of these areas yet the followers of this faith do not form a significant group. In Kalpa, Moorang and Pooh tehsils Lama are consulted and their services utilised in performance of many religious ceremonies. In Nichar and Sangla people do not necessarily consult Lamas on these occasions. In the absence of Brahman priests the people perform ceremonies themselves.

Monasticism
Kanet boys, who learn the Tibetan scriptures and are well versed in Buddhist doctrines, are called Lamas. Similarly the Kanet girls, who do not marry, but devote their time to the study of Tibetan scriptures are called Zomos or Jomos. They live in nunneries. The two principal nunneries are at Kanam and Sunnam and in these a great numbers of Zomos live. Besides this, almost every village had few Zomos. The Lamas live in the monasteries and are looked upon as very holy.

In fact they are the priests of all the Kanets.There are several monasteries of these Lamas in Kanam, Sunnam and other villages. Lamas are either Gyolong or Celibate like the Brahmchari or Dugpu, who marry but never shave. The head Lama is consulted with regard to important undertaking.

Language
A number of dialects are spoken by the inhabitants of district Kinnaur which came under 'Kinnauri' or 'Kanauri'. According to classification of languages made by the Linguistic Survey of India, 'Kanauri' comes under Tibet-Chinese Family of Languages. It has further been classified as language belonging to Western Sub-Group of Pronominalized Himalayan Group belonging to Tibeto-Himalayan Branch under Tibeto-Burnab Sub-Family (Census of India 1961, Vol. 1 India, Part II-C(ii). Languages Tables.P.CL.XVI). In Shimla Hill States Gazetteer, 1910, there is mention of three dialects spoken in Kinnaur. These are Hindi, Kinnauri and English Also there are as many as nine different dialects used by various sections in district Kinnaur.

The villagers on the Tibetan Border speak Tibetan dialects of western Tibet. The extent of spoken Tibetan is limited to the village of Nesang, Kunu and Charang adjoining Tibet. Jangram dialect is spoken in Jangi, Lippa and Asrang villages of Moorang tehsil. The Shumceho dialect is spoken in the villages of Kanam, Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso and Rushkalang of Pooh tehsil. A Kinnauri-Jangram mixture is the language used in Rakchham and Chhitkul villages of Sangla tehsil. The Scheduled castes speak a language which is closer to that of certain parts of the adjoining districts of Kinnaur. Besides these dialects the educated people of Kinnaur can speak Hindi also. Both men and women, specially in Sangla and Kalpa valley can speak English in addition to their mother tongue and Hindi.


Temples & Monasteries : 

Chandika Temple Kothi
A handsome temple dedicated to goddess Chandika, more especially designated as Shuwang Chandika has spread the fame of village Kothi in greater part of the district.The local people hold the goddess in great reverence and consider her to be one of the most powerful goddess. For want of social contact by the local people with their more advanced and brahmin ridden brethren they have evolved their own peculiar procedure of ritual and worship to this presiding deity. There is an image of gold, seated in an ark. It is danced up and down by four persons at the time of worship.

Her legend goes that she was the daughter of the demon devta Banaasur who presided over the Kinnaur. He had 18 sons and daughters. Chandika was the eldest among all. She presided over Sairag the heart of Kinnaur. But establishing her hold on the area was not so easy. The thakur of Chini ruled Sairag with a aid of a powerful demon. To defeat this enemy, Chandika took the aid of a cunning female relative called Byche. Byche duped the demon into placing his long hair between the grinding stones of a water mill. Then Chandika sprang on the helpless giant and severed his head with her sword. But a new head immediately replaced the old. Repeated swishes of her sword only brought forth more grinning faces. Frustrated and tiring, Chandika was soon in danger of drowning in the sea of blood created by her actions. Forsaking her pride, she appeared to her brothers for assistance. Chagaon Maheshwar responded and told her to kill the life sustaining beetle, hovering over the demon's head. Chandika maintains her chief abode at Kothi in the middle of Sairag.

Mathi Temple at Chhitkul
Mathi is the local goddess of the people of chhitkul having three temples the main one said to have been constructed about five hundred years ago by a resident of Garhwal. The square ark of the goddess is made of walnut wood and is covered with clothes and surmounted by a tuft of yak tail. Two poles called bayanga are inserted into it by means of which it is carried. Her legend goes that she started from Brindavan and passing through Mathura and Badri Nath reached Tibet. Afterward she came to Garhwal, and via Sirmour reached Sarhan in Bushahr and ultimately reached the Barua Khad. Beyond Barua Khad she found the territory divided into seven parts. The deity of Shaung village was Narenas, her nephew. She appointed him to guard the territory.Then she proceeded to Chasu village. There too she appointed the Narenas of Chasu, her nephew as a guard. Then she visited the Kamru fort where her husband Badri Nath, was a guard of the throne of Bushahr. She further went to Sangla where her another nephew, Barang Nag, was responsible for safeguarding the Rupin Ghati. Thereafter she proceeded to Batseri village, where Badri Nath of Batseri, her husband was responsible for guarding a place named Dhumthan. Thence onward she arrived at Rakchham where Shanshares, yet another nephew was appointed as a guard of Dhumthan. Finally she arrived at Chhitkul and settled there permanently assuming the overall responsibility of safeguarding the seven divisions. After her arrival, people had plenty of food, animals had sufficient grass and the village began to proper. She had also a pujares. In the morning the pujares bring water from the nearby spring and worship goddess by burning incense, while musical instruments are played by Domangs.

Maheshwar Temple at Sungra
The portals of Maheshwar temple of Sungra have superb wood panels on either side. deeply cut images of prominent Hindu deities are a treat for the art historian. On the eastern wall are panels depicting the Vishnu Avatars and the symbol of the Hindu zodiac. The friezes on the eaves are beautiful and the buildings arround the temple courtyard are similarly embellished . A small stone shrine of eighth century stands a short distance from the temple doorway, evidence of the site's antiquity. The Sungra Maheshwar was once said to have been attacked by an enemy of superhuman strength, often linked to the Pandava hero, Bhima. Bhima hurled a huge boulder at the temple from the mountain tops across the Satluj. The Maheshwar deflected the missile to one side. It now lies close to the road, a short way from the temple and still shelters the alpine flowers found only in the high mountains.

Chango Temples at Chango
Chango has three temples. In lower Chango, the red walls of Rinchen Zangpo temple stand out atop a little promontory  but contain little of note. Nearby, the village temple, in more regular use as a place of worship, has a large prayer wheel, clay idols and contemporary wall paintings. A large image of Avalokiteshwara, crudely carved in stone, lies on the path between these two shrines. It was found in some out of the way and the monks decided to place it in a temple but the combined strength of many men was insufficient to lift the stone. Then the present location was though. The temple in upper Chango is the best kept but of relatively recent vintage. Close by, a new prayer hall, library and guest rooms are nearing completion. Across the Chango stream, perched above yellow, alkaline cliffs, is an older collection of religious buildings.

Rarang Monastery at Rarang
Just outside Rarang, on the Thopan side is the newly built Monastery of Tashi Choeling. This new monastery has come in the wake of post-1960 Tibetan influences from the Drugpa sect. Close to the monastery are older dwellings and temples, merging into the rugged surface of a rocky mountain side. These older units are traced to Nyingmapa adherents.

Durga Temple at Ropa
There is a Durga temple at Ropa also known as the Chandika temple. Chandika had apportioned to herself this semi-arid tract when she divided Kinnaur amongst her brothers and sisters. Her temple at Ropa, a new structure with a reinforced cement concrete frame, is an architectural malapropism.

Charang Temple
Just beyond Charang is a temple of the eleventh century known as Rangrik Tungma complex. The temple takes its name from the goddess Rangrik Tungma and her small metal image, astride a horse is the oldest at the temple. In all likelihood Rangrik Tungma must have been a pre-Buddhist deity, absorbed into the pantheon of the later religion. Two other bronze statues appear to be of considerable value; a Maitreya seated with legs pendant, in bhadrasana and a Buddha in bhumisparsha mudra. The walls of the main hall are linked with clay idols, in the same style as the mandala in the dukhang at Tabo. The wall paintings below are old although the wheel of life outside the door has been redone lately. There is also an interesting hoard of ivory and bonehandled knives and daggers at the temple. Many centuries ago, it is said a robber gang from across the Tibetan border raided the temple. The clay images of protective deities at the entrance set up a terrific noise, resembling the thundering hooves of galloping horses. The terrific robbers dropped their weapons and took off, running up valley to vanish in the crevasses of the huge glaciers streaming down from the high peaks above.

Brelengi Gompa at Brelengi near Peo
Near Reckong Peo in Brelengi there is a Buddhist Monastery also known as the Brelengi gompa.This is an impressive modern Buddhist edifice. The monastery of Mahabodhi society was constructed specially for the Dalai Lama to perform the Kalachakra ceremony in 1992. Next to the monastery is a 10 meter statue of the standing Buddha, which is visible from a considerable distance.

Fair and Festivals :
Sazo
This festival is observed in the month of January. On this day the people take their bath in the natural springs and few even go to Satluj river for bathing if they happen to live near the river. Poltus, rice, pulses, vegetables, meat, halva, chilta and pug are the principal dishes prepared on this occasion. In the morning the family god is worshiped with the food except meat. The hearth is also worshiped near Noon time, the deity is brought out and worshiped with wine and halwa A fold dance is held. Thereafter the deity is believed to have gone to Kinner Kailash.

Phagul or Suskar
It is celebrated in the month of February/March. In this festival the sprit of Kanda (Peaks) called Kali is mainly worshiped, the festivals lasts about a fornight and is celebrated all over Kinnaur. Each day of the festival is called by different names and several peculiar functions are held each day. On the last day a feast is prepared and people worship kali on the roof of the houses and then partake of the food. It is believed that after the function and festival are celebrated with full zeal Kali the spirit feels happy and blesses the villagers with prosperity and plenty in the coming years.

Baisakhi or Beesh
It is celebrated in the month of April. The villagers prepare food like Poltu, Halwa and Keyshid. The image of the goddess is brought out of the temple and a fair is held in the Santang. It is an occasion to get together and to dance and drink. This festival marks the end of winter season also. New woolen clothes are worn from the wool spun during the winter.

Dakhraini
This festival is celebrated in the month of the July. On this day a feast is served. The deity is brought out and the villagers dance before her. Zongor and loskar flowers are brought from the kand peak and their garlands are offered to the goddess. After this these flowers are distributed among the villagers. One or two members from the family where death might have occurred before this festival go to the peak of the hill and ofter some food and fruits to shepherd in memory of the departed soul. A white flag on which some Buddhist mantras are written is fixes there as a sort of prayer for the peace of departed soul.

Flaich Ukhayang
It is a festival of flowers celebrated in the month of September. This festival is celebrated through the Kinnaur District on different dates. Generally people celebrate it on the hill peaks near their villages. The village deity led by band is carried to the place of in procession. One he-goat is sacrificed. A fair is held throughout the day. Flowers of shuloo which have been brought from peaks for this purpose are woven into garlands. At the end of the fair these garlands are offered to the deity. Immediately after that the people accompany the goddess to the village adorned with flowers. The people sing and dance on the return journey.

Losar
Loser is celebrated in the month of December to welcome the new year. On this day in the morning a special preparation of parched barley mixed with butter milk is taken by all the family members and they put on garlands of chilgoza visits to the neighbours and friends are reciprocated and greetings of losuma tashi meaning happy new year are exchanged. While the elderly person betow their losuma shalkid or blessings. Two or three days before the losar festival khepa is observed. On this day it is customary to fetch small branches of a throny bush and place it on the doors. It is meant to ward off evil spirits. On the next day these throny twigs are removed and thrown far away from the village and a feast follows in the night.

Tribal Festival
Tribal Festival is being celebrated since 1994 from 30 October to 2nd November every year at District Headquarter Reckong Peo and this festival has been declared as State Level festival and has been celebrated since 1987 under different names like Janjatiya Utsav, Phulaich Utsav and also as Tribal Festival. This festival not only depicts the panorama of rich culture heritage of district but also provides an opportunity to the local people to sell/exhibit their horticulture/agriculture produce, handicraft and artifacts. Besides the Kinnauri culture groups, participants from other districts/states also present and perform culture programmes symbolizing national integration and brotherhood.


Wild Life 
Sanctuaries :

Lipa-Asrang Sanctuary
Lipa-Asrang sanctuary is located in District Kinnaur at the altitude of 4,000 to 5,022 meters. The temperature varying from -10° to 15° C and mean rainfall is 226.3 mm. The Total area of the sanctuary is 3,089.90 hectares (30.89 sq. km.). The nearest town to this sanctuary is Moorang. This was was notified in 1962 and renotified on 27 March 1974. This is located on the high altitude largely flat and a part of it is barren cold desert. The species found in this sanctuary are the Yak, Ibex, Leopard, Goral, Blue Sheep, Brown Bear, Musk Deer, Himalayan black Beer etc. This sanctuary has forest type include dry alpine scrub, dry coniferous forest, dwarf juniper scrub, western Himalayan temperate forest, dry broad leaved and coniferous forest.

Rakchham-Chhitkul Sanctuary
Rakchham Chhitkul sanctuary is located in District Kinnaur at the altitude of 3,200 to 5,486 meters. The temperature varying from -10° to 15° C, mean rainfall is 4639 mm and snowfall is 1,129.7 mm. The total area of the sanctuary is 3,411 hectares (34.11 sq. km.) This sanctuary was first notified in 1962 and renotified on 27 March 1974. This sanctuary is located on the high altitude. The nearest town to this sanctuary is Reckong Peo. The species found in this sanctuary are Leopard, blue Sheep, Himalayan black Bear, brown Bear, musk Deer and Goral etc.The forest type of this sanctuary include lower western Himalayan temperate, upper western Himalayan temperate, dry broad scru. 'The Govind Pashu Vihar Sanctuary' of Utter Pradesh is near to and little beyond the eastern boundary of the sanctuary lies the Tibetan plateau of China.

Rupi-Bhaba Sanctuary
Rupi Bhaba sanctuary is located in the District Kinnaur at the altitude of 909 to 5,650 meter.The temperature varying from -10° to -20° C, rainfall 45 mm and snowfall is 300 mm. This sanctuary was first notified on 28th March 1982 and renotified on 30th June 1982. The wide variation of altitude supports a large diversity of habitats and wild life. This sanctuary lies on the left bank of the Satluj river. The great Himalayan and Pin Valley National Parks are located on its western and northern boundaries respectively. The species found in this sanctuary are Serow, blue Sheep, red Fox, musk deer, Goral, ibex, Leopard, snow Leopard, brown Bear, Himalayan black Bear etc. The forest types include lower western Himalayan temperate, kharsu oak, alpine pastures, dry temperate coniferous and dry broad leaved coniferous.


Rivers and Lakes : 
Satluj
The Satluj-This is the principal river of Kinnaur almost dividing the district into two parts. It runs within the Himalayan mountains for about 450 kilometers and the first part of its course is west-north-west. When it enters Kinnaur, it generally takes south-westerly direction. Within the District the length is about 130 km. Its source is supposed to be at a great elevation on the southern face of the Kailash range whence it flows into the sacred lake Rawan Hard. As far as the village of Khab it is almost a razing torrent. At Khab it receives the Spiti river where the bed of stream is still above 2,589 m high from the mean sea level. The Satluj descends from about 3,050 m (the point of its entrance in the district), to 1,220 m at Chaura flowing almost the whole way between narrow cliffs and therefore, there is no open ground worth describing all along its bank.The water of the river is more or less discoloured.Cultivated fields in terraces are generally at considerable height from its banks and thus immune from the turbidity of water which largest in June, July and August. The average discharge is about 2,000 cusecs during the winter and 100,000 cusec during June-July. The tributaries of the Satluj in this district are the Spiti, the Ropa, the Taiti, the Kashang, the Mulgoon, the Yula, the Wanger, the Shorang and the Rupi on the right bank and the Tirung, the Gyanthing, the Baspa, the Duling and the Solding running on the left bank.

Spiti
It is the second major river of the district which has its source far north on the eastern slopes of the mountain ranges which run between Lahul and Spiti. The river is formed at the base of the Kunzum Range by the confluence of Kunzum La Togpo and the streams Kabzima and Pinglung. It flows eastwards till Kaurik and then turns southwards to join the Satluj river at Khab at an altitude of 2589 meters. Spiti is joined by several feeders which meet the river both at right and left banks. Chaladogpo, the Yulang, the Lipak and the Tirasang are its main tributaries. The only mentionable tributary on the left bank is Chaladogpo existing between Chango and Changriang, whereas on the right side are the yulang, the Lipak and the Tirasang.

Baspa
The Baspa river, the another feeder of the Satluj, rises on the north eastern declivity of the outer Dhauladhar of the Himalaya. It is a big and valuable stream, running smoothly down a famous valley. It is bounded on the south-west by the Dhaola Dhar and on the north-east by the huge Raldang peak of the Great Himalaya. The channel of the river is wide. At Chhitkul its width is roughly twenty meters, lower down, the width is from twenty-three to twenty-five meters. After coursing in a north westerly direction it falls into the Satluj at Karchham.The Baspa is next to Spiti in size and is about seventy-two km in length. Its entire course lies within the district. As compared to other rivers the Baspa is fairly turbulent and frequently changes its course thereby doing extensive damage to the cultivated fields on its bank.It receives the various streams and streamlets on both of its banks. On the left side mentionable tributaries are Zupkia, Thatang, Bering and Rukti and on the right Suthi. This is the most inhabited valley and there are now permanent bridges at many places. An outlandship fish species known as brown trout (salmo fario) is found in this river.

Nako Lake
This beautiful lake is high altitude lake located in the Pooh sub-division of district Kinnaur. The lake is surrounded by willow and polar trees. There is a small village on the bank of this lake - and the village seems to be half buried by the lake's borders. On the water's northern side, are four Buddhist temples with stucco images and murals. Near Nako is a footprint-like impression ascribed to the saint Padmasambhava. It freezes in winter and people enjoy skating on this lake.


Main Trek Routes :
  1. Bhaba Valley to Pin Valley
  2. Kinner kailash Parikarma
  3. Sangla to Dodra Kawar
  4. Sangla to Dhamwari
  5. Sangla to Barang
  6. Tapri to Chhitkul
  7. Tapri to Kalpa
  8. Reckong Peo to Nako
  9. Chhitkul to Gangotri

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