[Security Forces] Indian Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandates

The Army
  • Headquarters – New Delhi
  • Functions under – The chief of Army Staff, responsible for the command, control and administration as a whole
  • Divided into six operational commands (field armies) and one training command.
Air Force
  • Was officially established on 8th October 1932.
  • 5 operational commands
  • Two functional commands – Maintenance Command and Training Command
  • Headquarters – New Delhi
  • Responsible for defence and security of India’s maritime interests and assets, both in times of war and peace.
  • Functions under – The chief of the Naval Staff
  • Headquarters – New Delhi
National Investigative Agency (NIA)
  • Is the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in India
  • Born through the enactment of NIA Act on 31st December 2008.
  • Deals with
  1.   Militancy and insurgency and Left-wing extremism
  2.   Various forms of terrorist attacks and bomb blasts
  3.    Infiltration from across the borders
  4.   Complex inter-state and international-linkages
  5.   other activities like the smuggling of arms and drugs
  6.   pushing in of fake Indian currency etc.

Paramilitary forces 
Assam Rifles
  • The oldest paramilitary force.
  • Under the control of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)
  • Provision of internal security under the control of the army through the conduct of counter insurgency and border security operations.
  • In times of war they are used as a combat force to secure rear areas if needed.
  • It has been guarding the India-Myanmar border as per the government policy “one border one force”
Coast Guard
  • Came into being on 1 February 1977 and was constituted as an independent armed force of the Union of India with the enactment of CG Act 1978 on 18 August 1978.
  • Duties include:
  1.   Safety and protection of offshore installations and maritime environment
  2.    Assisting customs in anti-smuggling operations.
Special Frontier Force
  • It was created in 1962. The force was put under the direct supervision of the Intelligence Bureau, and later, under the Research and Analysis wing.
  • Main goal was to conduct covert operations behind Chinese lines in the event of tensions that might arise anytime as Indo-China war.
National Security Guards
  • India’s premier counter-terrorism force, created under the National Security Guard Act of 1985
  • Operates under the Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Headed by the Director of the Indian Police Service (IPS)
  • Also known as ‘Black Cats’
  • Roles include
  1.   Protecting VIPs
  2.   Conducting anti-sabotage checks
  3.   Rescuing hostages
  4.    Neutralizing terrorist threats to vital installations
  5.    Engaging terrorists and responding to hijack and piracy

Special Protection Group
  • The force was created in 1985 following the assassination of former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
  • Is used for the protection of VVIPs such as the prime Minister and his/her immediate family members.
  • The officer cadre is mainly IPS officers from various state/central cadres
Rapid Action Force (RAF)
  • Specialized wing of the Indian CRPF
  • Formed in October 1992, to deal with riots and related unrest
Border Security Force (BSF)
  • Established on December 1, 1965.
  • Responsible for guarding India’s land borders during peacetime and preventing trans border crimes
  • Operates under the Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Currently the world’s largest border guarding force.
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
  • Functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Primary role is in assisting the state/Union territories in police operations to maintain law and order and contain insurgency.
  • Came into existence on December 28, 1949 by the enactment of the CRPF Act
  • Role of CRPF in General elections has been very vital and significant
  • The 88th Battalion of CRPF, known as “Mahila Battalion” (commissioned on Mar 30, 1986) is the world’s first paramilitary force comprising entirely of women.
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
  • Came into existence on 24 October, 1962 for security along the Indo-Tibetan border
  • It is basically employed in the Northern borders for monitoring the borders and also to stop smuggling and illegal immigration.
  • The ITBP personnel is trained in mountaineering, disaster management, and nuclear, biological and chemical disasters
  • Have been deployed in UN peacekeeping missions
Central Industrial Security Force
  • Established on June 15, 1983
  • Headquarters – New Delhi
  • Provides security cover to industrial units located all over India like atomic power plants, space installations, defence units, mints, oil fields and refineries, major ports etc.
Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
  • Armed border force formerly known as special service bureau and under the control of MHA.
  • Specifically created as the brainchild of Indian think tank to counter the Chinese by using guerrilla tactics.
  • First border guarding force which has decided to recruit women battalions.
  • Also engaged in counter Insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and Anti-naxal operations in Jharkhand and Bihar.
  • Role is to promote sense of security among the people living in the border areas, to prevent trans-border crimes, and unauthorized entries or exit from the territory of India, and to prevent smuggling and other illegal activities.
Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)
  • India’s external intelligence agency
  • Was formed in September 1968.
  • Primary function is collection of external intelligence, counter-terrorism and covert operations
  • Responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons, in order to advice Indian foreign policy makers.

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