[Polity] All Amendments in Indian Constitution Useful for UPSC Exams

Amendments are very frequently asked in Civil Services Exam by UPSC and other Exams :

 Amendments
 Date of Enforcement
 Objectives
1st amendment
June 18, 1951
To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws.

To place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech.
A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights.
These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law
2nd amendment
May 1, 1953
A technical amendment to fix the size of each parliamentary constituency between 650,000 and 850,000 voters.
3rd amendment
February 22, 1955
Limits maximum no of seats in lok Sabha up to 500
States to be divided into constituencies such that one member of a constituency represents between 500000 and 750000 people
4th amendment
April 27, 1955
Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution
5th amendment
December 24, 1955
Provides for a consultation mechanism with concerned states in matters relating to the amendments to the territorial matters and in the re-naming of the state
6th amendment
September 11, 1956
Amended the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes
7th amendment
November 1, 1956
Reorganization of states on linguistic lines
Abolition of Class A, B, C, D states
Introduction of Union Territories
8th amendment
January 5, 1960
Clarify state's power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property
Include Zamindari abolition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
9th amendment
December 28, 1960
Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.
10th amendment
August 11, 1961
Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory after acquisition from Portugal
11th amendment
December 19, 1961
Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament.
Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college
12th amendment
December 20, 1961
Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, after acquisition from Portugal
13th amendment
December 1, 1963
Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A
14th amendment
December 28, 1962
Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India
Creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa
15th amendment
October 5, 1963
Raise retirement age of judges from 60 to 62
Other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
16th amendment
October 5, 1963
Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates
17th amendment
June 20, 1964
To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
18th amendment
August 27, 1966
Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories
19th amendment
December 11, 1966
Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts
20th amendment
December 22, 1966
Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges.
Validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges except those not eligible for appointment under article 233.
Amendment was needed to overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh
21th amendment
April 10, 1967
Included Sindhi as a National Language
22nd amendment
September 25, 1969
Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam
23rd amendment
January 23, 1970
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1980
24th amendment
November 5, 1971
Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution
25th amendment
April 20, 1972
Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property
26th amendment
December 28, 1971
Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic
27th amendment
February 15, 1972
Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers
28th amendment
August 29, 1972
Rationalized Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence
29th amendment
June 9, 1972
Places land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
30th amendment
February 27, 1973
Changes the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law
31th amendment
October 17, 1973
Increased size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats.
Increased seats went to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise
32nd amendment
July 1, 1974
Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh
33rd amendment
May 19, 1974
Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures
Prescribes procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker
34th amendment
September 7, 1974
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
35th amendment
March 1, 1975
Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India
36th amendment
April 26, 1975
Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union
37th amendment
May 3, 1975
Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly
38th amendment
August 1, 1975
Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances
39th amendment
August 10, 1975
Negated the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's election to parliament.
Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister
40th amendment
May 27, 1976
Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India.
Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
41th amendment
September 7, 1976
Raised Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Union and State Public Commissions from sixty to sixty two.
42nd amendment
April 1, 1977
Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi.
Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic
43rd amendment
April 13, 1978
Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country.
Repeals some of the more 'Anti-Freedom' amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42
44th amendment
September 6, 1979
Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country.
Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority.
Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42
45th amendment
January 25, 1980
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990
46th amendment
February 2, 1983
Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax
47th amendment
August 26, 1984
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
48th amendment
April 1, 1985
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to two years in the state of Punjab
49th amendment
September 11, 1984
Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
50th amendment
September 11, 1984
Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure
51th amendment
June 16, 1986
Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
52nd amendment
March 1, 1985
Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other
53rd amendment
February 20, 1987
Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
54th amendment
April 1, 1986
Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges
Provisions for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment
55th amendment
February 20, 1987
Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh
56th amendment
May 30, 1987
Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa
57th amendment
September 21, 1987
Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
58th amendment
December 9, 1987
Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution
Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments
59th amendment
March 30, 1988
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years in the state of Punjab
Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab
60th amendment
December 20, 1988
Professional Tax increased from a maximum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-
61th amendment
March 28, 1989
Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18
62nd amendment
December 20, 1989
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000
63rd amendment
January 6, 1990
Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed
64th amendment
April 16, 1990
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab
65th amendment
March 12, 1992
National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.
66th amendment
June 7, 1990
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
67th amendment
October 4, 1990
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to four years in the state of Punjab
68th amendment
March 12, 1991
Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to five years in the state of Punjab
69th amendment
February 1, 1992
To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory
70th amendment
December 21, 1991
Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election
71th amendment
August 31, 1992
Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as National Languages
72nd amendment
December 5, 1992
Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly
73rd amendment
April 24, 1993
Statutory provisions for Panchayat Raj as third level of administration in villages
74th amendment
June 1, 1993
Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities
75th amendment
May 15, 1994
Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals
76th amendment
August 31, 1994
Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution
77th amendment
June 17, 1995
A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions
78th amendment
August 30, 1995
Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
79th amendment
January 25, 2000
Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010
80th amendment
June 9, 2000
Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre
81th amendment
June 9, 2000
Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies
82nd amendment
September 8, 2000
Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates
83rd amendment
September 8, 2000
Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions
84th amendment
February 21, 2002
Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for state wise distribution of parliamentary seats
85th amendment
January 4, 2002
A technical amendment to protect seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees
86th amendment
December 12, 2002
Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six
87th amendment
June 22, 2003
Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for state wise distribution of parliamentary seats
88th amendment
January 15, 2004
To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax
89th amendment
September 28, 2003
The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
90th amendment
September 28, 2003
Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area
91th amendment
January 1, 2004
Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15 % of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws
92nd amendment
January 7, 2004
Enable Levy of Service Tax
Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithili as National Languages
93rd amendment
January 20, 2006
To enable provision of reservation for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions
94th amendment
June 12, 2006
To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States
95th amendment
25 January 2010
Extended the reservation of seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for SC and ST from sixty to seventy years
96th amendment
23 September 2011
Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya"
97th amendment
12 January 2012
Added the words "or co-operative societies" in Article 19(l)(c) and inserted article 43B i.e, Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e, THE CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES



No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Translate