[Ancient History] Sciences in Ancient India


Work
Subject
Author
Notes
Vedanga Jyotisha
Astrology
Lagadha
(1st c. BCE)
Describes rules for tracking motion of sun and moon
Yavanajataka
Astrology
Sphujidvaja
1st-2nd c. CE)
Translated it mean “Nativity as per the Greeks”
It is a collection of astrology-related ideas borrowed from Greek world
Gives rules for building horoscopes
Surya Siddhanta
Astronomy
Establishes rules to determine motions of stellar objects
Paulisa Siddhanta
(Doctrine of Paul)
Astronomy
Based on works of Paul of Alexandria
(c. 378 CE)
Romaka Siddhanta
(Doctrine of the Romans)
Astronomy
Based on works of Rome
It is the only Indian work based on the tropical system
Vasishta Siddhanta
Astronomy
Attributed to sage Vasishta
Panchasiddhantika
Astronomy
Varahamihira
(c. 550 CE)
Work that compares five treatises on astronomy viz. Surya Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Vasishta Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta
Sulba sutras
Mathematics
Baudhayana (c. 800 BCE), Apasthamba (c. 600 BCE), Katyayana (c. 200 BCE)
Baudhayana enumerated the Pythagoras theorem. He also described square root of 2 and geometric shapes such as squares and   rectangles
Apasthamba and Katyayana developed these principles further
Chandahsastra
Mathematics
Pingala
(4th-2nd c. BCE)
First known description of binary numeral system in the world
Also describes Pascal’s triangle, binomial theorem and Fibonacci numbers
Aryabhatiya
Astronomy, mathematics
Aryabhata
(c 522 CE)
Introduced decimal value notation
Describes heliocentric model of solar system
Explained lunar and solar eclipses
Gave duration of one year as 365 days 6 hrs 12 min 30 sec
Gave value of pi (3.1416)
Correctly calculated earth’s circumference as 24,835 miles
Aryabhata’s principles are still in use for fixing the Hindu calendar Panchanga
Mahabhaskariya
Mathematics, astronomy
Bhaskara I
(c. 600 – 680 CE)
Representation of numbers in positional system
Solved Wilson’s theorem and Pell equation
Brahmasputasiddhanta
Mathematics, astronomy
Brahmagupta
(c. 630 CE)
Describes solution of linear equation
Solve system of simultaneous indeterminate equations
Sum of series
Introduced the concept of zero
Formula for cyclic quadrilaterals
Rebutted the idea that moon is farther from earth than the sun

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