[Medieval History] Medieval Indian History Brief Notes - Part 3 : THE KINGDOMS OF THE DECCAN

THE KINGDOMS OF THE DECCAN

  1. The southern part of India is called the Deccan or the Dakshinapatha
  2. The Deccan was separated from Northern India by the Vindhya and Satpura mountains, the Narmada and Tapti and the dense forests
  3. The Deccan was separated from Northern India by the Vindhya and Satpura mountains, the Narmada and Tapti and the dense forests
  4. The medieval period witnessed the rise of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan
  5. This period also saw the extension of the Delhi Sultanate namely the Khiljis and the Tughluqs into South India. 
The Chalukyas (6th -12th century A.D.)
  1. The Early Western Chalukyas -6th-8th century A.D.
  2. The Later Western Chalukyas 10th-12th century A.D.
  3. The Eastern Chalukyas-7th-12th century.A.D
Early Western Chalukyas (6th-8thcentury A.D.)
  1. The Chalukyas rose to power in Karnataka in the 6th century A.D
  2. Their capital was Vatapi, (modern Badami) in the Bijapur district
  3. Had a humble beginning under Jayasimha and Ramaraya. Pulakesin-I (543-566.A.D)
Real founder
  1. Pulakesin II (610-642 A.D.)
  2. Greatest ruler of this dynasty
  3. He defeated Gangas, Malavas and Gurjaras.
  4. He successfully opposed Harsha’s attack in the north and defeated him in 637 A.D.
  5. In the south he was constantly struggling with the Pallavas.
  6. Pulakesin II defeated the Pallava King Mahendravarma I after which he crossed the Cauvery
  7. Made friendly alliances with the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas
  8. Made friendly alliances with the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas
  9. Pulakesin II lost his life during the war.
  10. Vikramaditya-I, Vijayaditya and Vikramaditya-ll were the other important rulers of this dynasty
  11. The last of the Chalukya Kings of Badami.
Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (10th  -12th century A.D)
  • The founder of this dynasty brought the Rashtrakuta rule to an end.
The important rulers
  1. Someshwara-ll
  2. Vikramaditya-VI
  3. Vikramaditya-VI
  4. Someswara IV was the last ruler
Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (7th -12th century A.D)
  1. Vishnu Vardhana, a brother of Pulakesin-ll, was the founder of the Eastern Chalukya Empire of Vengi.
  2. One of their descendants namely Kulothunga Chola (1071-1122 A.D.)
  3. He was enthroned as a Chola ruler.
Contributions of the Chalukyas
  1. The Chalukya kings were the followers of Hinduism.
  2. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin-ll who composed the Aihole Inscription was a Jain
  3. Great patrons of architecture
  4. Built around 70 Vishnu temples in Aihole.
  5. Hence Aihole has been called the ‘Cradle of Indian Temple architecture
  6. Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal
  7. Telugu literature developed during this period.
The Virupaksha temple:
  • This temple was built by Lokamahadevi.the queen of Vikramaditya 11.In front of the Hall of the Priests or Antarala there is a pillared Mandapam or a meeting placefor the people.
  • The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple at Kancheepuram.
The Rashtrakutas (8th -10th century A.D.)
  1. The period of the Rashtrakuta ascendancy (753-975A.D.) constitutes perhaps the most brilliant chapter in the history of the Deccan.
  2. The Rashtrakutas were the descendants of the Rathors of the North.
  3. Kannada was the mother tongue of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas (background)
  1. Means designated officers-incharge of territorial divisions called Rashtras
  2. The members of the family were district officers under the early Chalukyas of Badami.
Dantidurga
  1. He occupied Ellora in 742 AD and became a feudatory of Kirtivarman of Badami
  2. He captured Maharastra, Gujarat and most of the districts of central and northern Madhya Pradesh.
  3. Rashtrakuta territory extended around Nasik in the Northern Deccan with Malkhed as its capital
  4. Dantidurga died in 756 A.D. and was succeeded by his uncle Krishna-I (756-775 A.D.).
Govinda-ll
  • Govinda-ll (775- 780 A.D.), the son of Krishna I invaded the kingdom of Vengi and entered into alliances with the rulers of Gangavadi, Kanchi, Vengi and Malwa
Dhurva
  • Dhurva (780-792 A.D.) who succeeded Govinda-ll, was an able ruler
Govinda-lll
  • Govinda-lll (792 -81 4 A.D.) was succeeded by his fourteen year old son Amoghavarsha-I (814-880 A.D).
Krishna lll
  1. Krishna lll (936-968 A.D.) was the next famous ruler. He defeated the Cholas at Takkolam and captured Tanjore.
  2. He went as far as Rameshwaram
Karka-ll
  • Karka-ll (972-973.A.D.), the last ruler of the Rashtrakutas was defeated by Tailapa-ll, the Chalukya ruler of Kalyani.
Contributions
Ellora
1.       The Ellora caves were excavated during the reign of the Chalukyas and later by the Rashtrakuta Kings.
2.       Hindu .Buddhist and Jain deities are found in these cave temples.
The Kailasanatha
1.       World’s largest temple hewn out of a single blocks of rock and is the most imposing

Krishna-I
  1. Kailasanatha temple at Ellora.
  2. The Elephanta caves near Mumbai were completed by the Rashtrakutas
Amoghavarsha
  1. Great patron of literature.
  2. He wrote Marga in the Kannada language
Jinasena (teacher of Amoghavarsha)
  1. Wrote Parsavaudaya, a biography of Parsava
The Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra (11th -14th Century A.D.)
Vinayaditya
  1. Vinayaditya (1006 -1022 A.D.) carved out a petty principality of Mysore and ruled over it with Sosavir as his capital.
  2. Vishnuvardhana was the first distinguished ruler of Vinayaditya’s family. He shifted his capital to Dwarasamudra.
  3. He captured Gangavadi from Kulothunga Chola.
  4. Gangavadi served as a buffer state between the Chalukyas and the Chola Empire.
Vira Ballala – ll
  1. Vira Ballala – ll (1173-1220 A.D.)the next important ruler, he defeated Billama V of Yadava Dynasty.
  2. He arrested the independence of the Hoysalas.
Narasimhan-ll
  1. Narasimhan-ll (1220-1235 A.D.) lost the territory between Krishna and Tungabhadra to Singhana, a Yadava ruler.
  2. He defeated Maravarman Sundara Pandya and restored Rajaraja-lll to the Chola throne and he erected the pillar of victory at Rameshwaram.
Ballala III
  1. Ballala III (1291-1342 A.D) was the last great ruler of this dynasty. In 1310A.D. he was defeated by Malik Kafur.
  2. He fell a victim to the Sultans of Madurai in 1342 A.D.
Ballala IV
  1. His son Ballala IV continued his struggle with the Muslims. With his death the Hoysala Kingdom came to end.
Contributions
  1. Hoysalas paved the way for the rise of Mysore into a big Kingdom.
  2. Great patrons of art, architecture and literature.
  3. Hoysalas encouraged Kannada literature.

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