THE NORTH INDIAN KINGDOMS – THE RAJPUTS – 2
The Chauhans of Delhi and Ajmer
- The Chauhans who were the feudatories of the Pratiharas declared their independence in the 1101 century at Ajmer.
- In the early part of the 12th century they captured Ujjain from the Paramaras of Malwa and Delhi from the Tomars.
- They shifted their capital to Delhi.
- The most important ruler of this dynasty was Prithvtraj Chauhan
Rathors of Kanauj (1090-1194 A.D.)
- The Rathors established themselves on the throne of Kanauj from 1090 to 1194 A.D.
- Jaichand was the last great ruler of this dynasty.
- He was killed in the battle of Chandwar in 1194A.D. by Muhammad of Ghori.
The Chandellas of Bundelkhand
- Established themselves in the 9th century.
- The Chandella Chief Yasovarman had his capital at Mahoba.
- Kalinjar was their important fort.
- The Chandellas built a number of beautiful temples at Khajuraho, the most famous being the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (1050 A.D.)
- Qutb-ud-din Aibak defeated, Paramal the last Chandella ruler in 1203A.D.
The Guhllas or Slsodlyas of Mewar
- The Rajput ruler Bapa Rawat was the founder of the Guhila or the Sisodiya dynasty with its capital at Chittor
- During the period of Rana Ratan Singh of Mewar,
- Ala-ud-din khilji invaded his territory and defeated him in 1307 A.D.
- The Sisodiya rulers – Rana Sangha and: Maharana Pratap gave a tough fight to the Mughal rulers of India
The Paramaras of Malwa
- The Paramaras were also the feudatories of Pratiharas. They asserted their independence in the 10th century and their capital was at Dhara.
- Raja Bhoja (1018-1069) was the most famous ruler of this period.
- He constructed a beautiful lake (More than 250 sq. miles) near Bhopal. He set up a college at Dhara for the study of Sanskrit Literature.
- The reign of the Paramaras came to an end with the invasion of Ala-ud-din Khilji
Nature of the Rajputs
- The Rajputs were great warriors and chivalrous by nature.
- They believed in protecting the women and the weak.
- The Rajputs were staunch followers of Hinduism
- They also patronized Buddhism and Jainism.
- During their period that the Bhakti Cult started.
- The Rajput government was feudal in character.
- Each kingdom was divided into a large number of Jagirs held by the Jagirdars.
Some of the literary works of this period are
- Kalhana’s Rajatarangin
- Jayadeva’s Gita Govindam
- Somadeva’s Kathasaritasagar
- Chand Bardai, the court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan, wrote Prithviraj Raso in which he refers to the military exploits of Prithviraj Chauhan.
- Bhaskara Charya wrote Siddhanta Shinomani, a book on astronomy
- The court poet of Mahendrapala and Mahipala
- His best known works were
- Karpu ramanjari , Bala and Ramayana
Art and Architecture
- Mural paintings and Miniature paintings became popular during this period.
- Khajuraho group of temples,
- Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneshwar
- The Sun Temple at Konark
- The Dilwara Temple at Mount Abu
End of the Rajput Power
- During the Rajput period there were no strong military power
- To keep the warring princes in check and to co-ordinate their activities against foreign invasions.
Some popular terms
- Jauhar: Amass suicide of women in order to escape defilement at the hands of foreign victors.
- Gita Govindam: ‘Song of the cowherd
- Rajatarangini -‘River of Kings’,
- Kathasaritasagara -Ocean of tales’