[Energy Resources] Oil Pipelines in India

Crude oil from oil-wells and finished products from refineries are generally transported through pipelines. Transportation of oil and petroleum through pipelines is cheap, effective and considered to
be safe. Looking at these advantages, a network of pipelines has been developed in India.

Some of the important pipelines are as under:

1. Pipelines of North-East India

(i) Noonmati-Siliguri-Pipeline
 This was the first pipeline constructed in India to bring crude oil from Naharkatia oilfield to Nunmati.

It was later extended to transport crude oil to refinery at Barauni in Bihar. It is 1,167 km long. It is now extended to Kanpur in U.P. The pipeline between Naharkatia and Nunmati became operative in 1962 and that between Nunmati and Barauni in 1964. Construction work on pipeline from Barauni to Kanpur and Haldia was completed in 1966. It has a number of pumping stations and subsidiary pipelines.

(i) Nunmati-Siliguri pipeline transport oil from Nunmati (Guwahati) in Assam to Siliguri in West Bengal.

(ii) Lakwa-Rudrasagar-Barauni pipeline has been constructed to carry crude oil from Lakwa and Rudrasagar to oil refinery at Barauni.

(iii) Barauni-Haldia pipeline, completed in 1966, transports refined petroleum products to Haldia port and bring back crude oil to Barauni refinery.

(iv) Barauni-Kanpur pipeline carries refined petroleum products from Barauni to Kanpur.

(v) Nunmati-Bangaigaon section of this pipe is used to transport raw materials for Bongaigaon petro-chemical complex.

(vi) Haldia-Rajbandh-Maurigram pipeline has been constructed to meet the requirements of southern part of West Bengal.

2. Pipelines of Western India Bombay-High Mumbai-Ankleshwar-Koyali Pipeline: This pipe-line connects the oilfields of Bombay High and Gujarat with the Koyali refinery of Gujarat. The city of Mumbai has been connected with a pipe line of 210 km length double pipeline to Bombay High to transport crude oil and natural gas. The Ankleshwar-Koyali pipeline was completed in 1965 to transport crude oil to Koyali refinery.

3. The Salaya-Koyali-Mathura Pipeline: This pipeline, 1075 km in length was laid down from Salaya (Gulf of Kachchh) to Koyali and Mathura via Viramgram to supply crude oil to the Mathura refinery. From Mathura, it has been extended to the oil-refinery at Panipat (Haryana) and Jalandhar in Punjab. It has an offshore terminal and the Sayala-Koyali sector of the pipeline was completed in 1978, while the Viramgram-Mathura sector was completed in 1981.

4. The Mathura-Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar Pipeline: This 513 km long pipeline was constructed to transport refinery products of Mathura to the main cities of north and north-west India.

5. Pipelines of Gujarat:
 In Gujarat, there are a number of short distance pipelines to transport crude-oil and natural gas to the refineries and the refined products to the market. These include the Kalol-Sabarmati Crude Pipeline, the Nwagam-Kalol-Koyali Pipeline, the Cambay-Dhuravan Gas Pipeline, the Ankleshwar-Uttran Gas Pipeline, the Ankleshwar-Vadodara Gas Pipeline, and the Koyali-Ahmadabad products Pipeline .

6. Mumbai Pipelines: From Mumbai, pipelines have been laid up to Pune and Manmad to distribute petroleum products.

7. The Haldia-Kolkata Pipeline: Through this pipeline, the Haldia products are sent to Kolkata and neighbouring urban places.

8. The Hajira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) Gas Pipeline: Having a length of 1750 km, this is the longest pipeline of India. It crosses 75 big and small rivers and 29 railway crossings. This pipeline was laid down by the Gas Authority of India. This gas pipeline connects Kawas (Gujarat), Anta (Rajasthan), Bijaipur (M.P.) and Jagdishpur (U.P.) and Auraiya (U.P.). It provides gas to the fertiliser plants at Bijaipur, Sawai Madhopur, Jagdishpur, Shahjahanpur, Aonla, and Babrala. Each one of these fertiliser plants has the capacity to produce about 1400 tonnes of ammonia per day.

9. The Kandla-Bhatinda Pipeline: This pipeline transports imported crude-oil from the Kandla seaport to the Bhatinda refinery.

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