[Modern History] British Annexation : CARNATIC WARS, BENGAL CONQUEST, MYSORE CONQUEST, MARATHA CONQUEST, PUNJAB CONQUEST, ANGLO-BURMESE WAR, ANGLO-AFGAN WAR

ASCENDANCY  OF  THE  BRITISH

CARNATIC WARS

1st CARNATIC WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1746-1748

v    Between French and (British + Nawab of Arcot)

v    REASONS:
   1.Colonial competition between French and British.

   2.Austrian war of succession.

v    COARSE OF WAR:
   1. 1746- St.George Fort was surrounded by French.
   2. Arcot nawab helped British @ Chennai –sent huge force under MAFUZ KHAN.
   3. 1746 – BATTLE OF ADAYAR- French under Dupleix defeated combined force of Nawab and British.

v    REASON FOR FAILURE:
1.Backward nature of Indian army-strong organized French forces(with modern war tactics and weapons).

v    TREATY: Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle(1748). (Also ends the Austrian war of succession)


2nd CARNATIC WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1749-1754

v    REASONS:
   1. War of succession in Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Arcot
   2. Dupliex aligned with Muzaffar Jung (H) and Chanda Sahib(A).

v    COARSE OF WAR:
1.       1751- BATTLE OF AMBUR -French+ally won the Battle
2.       Muzaffar Jung (H) became Nizam and Chanda Sahib(A) became Nawab.
3.       Anwaruddin(A) and Nasir Jang(H) were killed.
4.       French got Pondicherry and Masulipatnam + Jagir.
5.       1752- ROBERT CLIVE entered India.
6.       Arcot was recaptured by Clive - British won the (French + Ally).
7.       Chanda Sahib killed.
8.       Recall of Dupleix.

v    TREATY: Treaty of PONDICHERRY(1754).


3rd CARNATIC WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1758-1763

v    Between French (Count de lally) and British (Sir Eyre Coote)

v    REASONS:
1.due to seven years war in Europe( B Vs F).

v    COARSE OF WAR:
   1. lally captured Fort St.David.
   2. Initially british defeated by French.
   3. @ Battle of Wandiwash(1760)-British defeated French.
   4. 1761-Pondicherry captured by British.
   5. British demolished French monuments and Ethnic cleansing done.

v    TREATY: Treaty of Paris(1763). (Also ends the French domination in India).



Reasons for decline of French:
v  EEIC was a pvt. Organization British crown didn’t interfere into the affairs often.
v  Leaders like eyre coote and Robert Clive were absent in French army.
v  English were strong in NAVY but French used outdated naval equipment.


Importance of Carnatic war:
v    South India dominated by English Politically and Economically.
v    English availed the port facilities of Eastern coast.
v    In Europe, English became political mistress.


BENGAL CONQUEST

v  In 1717,Muhal Emperor Faruksiyar gave DASTAK (Trade privilege without duties) rights to British.
v  Later in 1740, Bengal became Independent State amd its first Nawab was Alvardikhan siraj.
v  1756- British was misusing its DASTAK rights
v  1756- Nawab of Bengal~~Siraj-ud-Daula(grandson of Alivardikhan) posted restrictions on British.
v  1756- Nawab invaded Kasim Bazzar and attacked Fort William, 144 British were captured and prisoned in a dark room with small hole for respiration.
v  On the next day,123 of them died due to suffocation and it is known as BLACK HOLE TRAGEDY.
v  JAN 1757- Robert Clive signed Treaty of Alinagar with nawab and recovered Calcutta.

v  BATTLE OF PLASSEY : JUNE 1757- (Mir Jaffer+ Mir Bakshi+ Admiral Watson+ Robert Clive) attacked Nawab of Bengal.
v  War ended in one day and Nawab was killed.
v  Mir Jaffer was appointed as Nawab of Bengal.-British was given 24 bargana.
v  Mir Jaffer resigned in 1760. He was replaced by his son-in-law Mir Kasim as Nawab.

v  BATTLE OF BUXAR: Mir kasim revolted against British for misusing dastak rights, 1962--formed alliance with Nawab of Awadh and Mugal Emperor(Shah alam II) and invaded british @buxar.
v  Combined force of Mir kasim was defeated by Sir Hectre Munro.
v  1765-Robert Clive became the First governor of Bengal.
v  Robert Clive made Mir Jaffer as Nawab.
v  TREATY OF ALLAHABAD: signed between Robert Clive and Shah Alam II and Nawab of Awadh----- British was given DIWANI (land revenue collection) rights for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.

v  IMPORTANCE OF BENGALI CONQUEST:

  1. First phase of economic drain started through Diwani rights.
  2. Made british politically and economically strong in Bengal.
  3. English supremacy in north India as the Emperor of Hindustan was defeated.

   
MYSORE CONQUEST

Mysore was ruled by UDAYAR DYNASTY. Hyder Ali joined the mysore army as a chepoy in 1740. Later he became the ruler of Mysore replacing Udayar ruler in 1761.


1st MYSORE WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1766-1769

v    Between Hyder Ali and British (Col. Smith)

v    REASONS:
1.Due to alignment of Hyder Ali with French.
2.British threatened by the growth of Hyder Ali.
3.British planned for obtaining the West Coast of India from Hyder Ali(for free and easy trade).


v    COARSE OF WAR:
   1767—Battle b/w British and Hyder Ali @ its peak.


v  TREATY: 1769-A friendly treaty signed b/w Hyder Ali and British—TREATY OF MADRAS [To help Hyder Ali from marathas and Nizam (H)].


2nd MYSORE WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1780-1784

v    Between Hyder Ali + Tipu Sultan and British (Warren Hastings)

v    REASONS:
1.Warren Hastings became Governor General of Bengal-1773.
2.Warren Hastings attacked French territory MAHE, which is under the control of Hyder Ali.
3.Hyder Ali was not supported by British during war with Marathas and Nizam as agreed in Treaty of Madras -1771.


v    COARSE OF WAR:
   1.1780-Hyder Ali invited the war.
   2.Initially Hyder Ali defeated the British force.
   3.1781-Hyder Ali was defeated by Eyre Coote @Battle Of PROTONOVA
   4.1782-Hyder Ali died of Cancer.
   5.Tipu Sultan continued the war, both exhausted and ended with treaty.
   [Tipu has strong administration over civil and military~~thus british could not defeat him easily.]


v  TREATY: 1784-Treaty of Manglore. On the basis of mutual restitution of conquests.



3rd MYSORE WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1790-1792

v    Between Tipu Sultan and British (Cornwallis)

v    REASONS:
1.Tipu Sultan has cardinal relationship with French.(hated by British)
2.Tipu Sultan attacked Trivancore(a close ally of British).


v    COARSE OF WAR:
   1.British started the war in 1790.
   2.Tipu has given European pattern of training to his forces(but they could not grasp it easily.)
   3.1791~~forces of Mysore were defeated by British in many places.
     Tipu sultan was defeated.

v  TREATY: 1792—Treaty of SRIRENGAPATINAM~~~Tipu gave half of his territories to British.



Ø     Tipu Sultan tried to form International Islamic alliance (Kabul,Iran,S.Arabia,Egypt).
Ø     1793-Tipu became the member of JACOBIAN CLUB.
Ø     Tipu organized solidarity meeting at Srirengapatinam to support French Revolution.
Ø     “Tree of Liberty” planted at Srirengapatinam.

  
4th MYSORE WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1799

v    Between Tipu Sultan and British (Wellesely)

v    REASONS:
1.Tipu Sultan has cardinal relationship with French.(hated by British)
2.Tipu Sultan membership in Jacobian club.~~threatened  British.

v    COARSE OF WAR:
   1.Lord Wellesely became the Governor General of Bengal(known for his aggressive policies).
   2.Wellesely wanted Tipu out of Mysore region.
   3.1799—Battle started b/w them,Tipu Sultan used iron cased rockets in the war.
   4.Finally,Tipu Sultan defeated in the war and killed.
   5.UDAYAR replaced the throne.(loyal to british).


Ø     IMPORTANCE:
      1.British became the prominent power of South India.
      2.British relieved from Francophobia.
      3.They availed Western coastal region.     



MARATHA CONQUEST


Ø  VARIOUS MARATHA RULERS:

MARATHA RULERS
AREA UNDER CONTROL
PESHWA
POONA
GAEKWAD
BARODA
SINDHIA
GWALIOR
HOLKAR
INDORE
BHONSLE
NAGPUR

1st MARATHA WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1775-1782

v    REASONS:
1.British signed Treaty of Surat  favouring Ragunath Rao as Peshwa.[After the death     of  Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772, his brother Narayanrao became Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. However, Raghunathrao, Narayanrao's uncle, had his nephew assassinated in a palace conspiracy that resulted in Raghunathrao becoming Peshwa, although he was not the legal heir.]

v    COARSE OF WAR:
1.       Narayanrao's widow, Gangabai, gave birth to a posthumous son, who was legal heir to the throne. The newborn infant was named 'Sawai' Madhavrao.
2.       Battle of Wadgaon-1779~~English forces were defeated by Maratha Rulers.


v  TREATY: 1782-Treaty of SALBHAI ;signed between marathas and Hastings .Peace b/w Marathas and British for next 20 years.

2nd MARATHA WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1803-1806

v    REASONS:
1.  1798--Wellesley introduced Subsidiary Alliance (securing the rulers providing military help and economic +political reward in return).
2.  1801—Nawab of Awadh,Nawab of Carnatic signed Subsidiary Alliance.
3.  In October 1802, Peshwa Baji Rao II was defeated by Yashwantrao Holkar, ruler of Indore, at the Battle of Poona. He fled to British protection, and in December the same year concluded the Treaty of Bassein with the British East India Company.


v    COARSE OF WAR:
1.In Combined forces of (Sindia+Bhonsle) defeated by EEIC~~the Maratha rulers also became the subsidiary alliance of British.
2.In 1805,Holkar fought with EEIC,signed a Peace treaty and ends the war.

v  TREATY: Treaty of Rajghat,1805.



3rd MARATHA WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1817-1818

v    REASONS:
1.Pindari War started against EEIc(marathas+muslims),headed by Sindias.
2.Its spread throughout north and central India,feared EEIC.


v    COARSE OF WAR:
1.1817-Peshwa attacked EEIC @ Poona~~Peshwa was defeated and sent to KANPUR and BOMBAY PRESIDENCY created from his land.
2.All the other Marathas were defeated by EEIC and treaties were signed for Subsidiary Alliance.

Ø     IMPORTANCE:
1.End of Maratha rule in India.
2.British became Pan Indian Power.
3.British gained access over cotton in Bombay presidency.
4.II phase of economic drain started in India.



PUNJAB CONQUEST

Ø  British feared of Russian Invasion into its Indian Colony.
Ø  Thus,planned for protecting for its own cause.(or gain control over Punjab).
Ø  In 1832,1839—Amirs of SINDH signed Subsidiary Treaty with EEIC(Sir Charles Napier).

1st SIKH WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1845-1846

v    REASONS:
  1. In 1839-Ranjit Singh(Amir of Punjab) died.
  2. War of Succession arose.
  3. People were unrest and protested against the government for mismanagement.\

v    COARSE OF WAR:
  1. In 1845—Lord Gough and Lord Hardinger(Governor General)attacked Punjab.
  2. Punjab with unorganized army and lack of leadership defeated easily by EEIC.

v  TREATY: Treaty of LAHORE-1846.


2nd SIKH WAR:

v    PERIOD: 1848-1849.
v    REASONS:
1.Dalhousie became the Governor General-1848.
2.Introduced Doctrine of lapse.
3.At that time , Punjab did not have legal heir.

v    COARSE OF WAR:
1.Punjab was annexed by Dalhousie, for void of proper succession and improper government in Punjab.
2. Though some government officials and public rose against the annexation of Punjab~~they were easily suppressed.
3. John Lawrence became the first Commissioner of Punjab Province.

  
DOCTRINE OF LAPSE

Ø  Introduced by Dalhousie in 1848.
Ø  1848—Satara was annexed by this doctrine.
Ø  1849—Punjab was annexed.
Ø  1853—Berar was annexed.
Ø  1854—Jhansi was annexed for no legal heir from rani Lakshmi Bhai.
Ø  1856--Awadh was annexed for mis governance from Nana Shaeib.


By the end of 1856 entire India came under the political control of English East Indian Company, the accumulated grievances of people and rulers reflected in 1857 Revolt. Though the revolt was aggressive with great participation from central India,it was successfully suppressed by British.Later the power was transferred to the CROWN and it was under the crown till INDIAN INDEPENDENCE IN 1947.


  
ANGLO-BURMESE WAR

v       Burma was united by King ALOUNG PAYA between 1752-1760.
v  His Successor Bodopaya repelled many chinese invasions and conquered the states of Arakan and Manipur(1813).
v       FIRST ANGLO- BURMESE WAR(1824):
In 1824,British Indian Authority declared War on Burma and occupied Rangoon and reached the capital Ava,peace came in 1826 by Treaty of YANDABO.

v       SECOND ANGLO- BURMESE WAR(1852):
Annexation of Pegu,the capital province only remained free.

v       THIRD ANGLO- BURMESE WAR(1885):
British attacked over Burma,Thibaw surrendered.

v    Later,in 1935 GoI act Burma was separated from India.
v    1948-Burmese national movement under U AUNG SAN intensified,and it was given independence in Jan 1948.

ANGLO-AFGAN WAR

The annexation of Afgan was basically because of the threat from Russian expansion in northwest .Also fear of afgan would become the ally of Russia.If it happens it would be a great threat to British India.

v    FIRST WAR (1838-1842):
   Also known as Auckland’s Folly.In 1839,British replaced Dost Muhammed by placing Shah Shuja.British faced popular revolt but were able to re-occupy Kabul.However ,they had to restore the thrown to Dost Muhammed.Occupied Kabul in 1842.

v    SECOND WAR (1878-1880):
   British India attacked Afgan during the period of Sher Ali.Sher Ali was defeated by Lord Litton and his son(Yakub khan) signed the Treaty of GANDAMAK.British adopted the policy of non-interference,but the afgan border with Russia is secured by British Indians and British interfered in the foreign affairs of Afgan.

v    THIRD WAR:
   Durand line was reaffirmed between British India and Afgan.Treaty of Rawalpendi was signed.Afgan was given independence with full soverignity in Foreign affairs.

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