[Computer Science & IT] Computer Fundamental Networking One Liners Questions and Fill in the Blanks

One Liners and Fill in the Blanks


Q.1.   The connection points between the Network Layer and the Transport Layer  is the IP  number(s) 
whereas the connection points between the Transport Layer  and the upper layers are called Ports 
which are  represented by  16  bits in the TCP segment header.
Q.2.   Unlike TCP  the Transport Layer  Protocol UDP is a connectionless protocol.
Q.3.   The programmatic connection between  the Network Layer  and the uppe r  (application)
layers is usually
established by  small software  running in Transport Layer.  These are usually  called Sockets.
Q.4.   In a 802.3 LAN, IP to ethernet address translation is performed by/with ARP which stands for Address
Resolution Protocol.
Q.5.   In an IP address with CIDR standard a quad can range from 0 to 255.
Q.6.   Bluetooth  uses Time Division Multiplexing.
Q.7.   A Bluetooth network with 7 active slaves is called a Piconet.
Q.8.   Bluetooth  standard specifies 13 applications which are called profiles.
Q.9.   As modulation technology, Bluetooth  employs FSK with  1M bps.
Q.10.   The number  of necessary  OSI layers in a bridge is two
Q.11.   Routers and Gateways are internetworking-connecting devices
Q.12.   A networked computer must minimally  have a  host-IP, a netmask and default gateway-IP numbers 
set up in  order to do IP-networking properly.
Q.13.   An IP-address with all host bits set to 1 is called Broadcast address.
Q.14.   A Class-B IP-range may  have about 65000  hosts in it.
Q.15.   IEEE-802.3 defines broadcast networks standards.
Q.16.   The word ‗Base‘ in 10BaseT identifies the media as baseband.
Q.17.   The letter ‗T‘ in 10BaseT indicates that it is a twisted-pair cable.
Q.18.   An ethernet address with all bits set to 1 is called ethernet  broadcast address.
Q.19.   CIDR addressing scheme allows us to create subnets for  efficient IP use.
Q.20.   ARP is a process  of obtaining ethernet addresses from IP-addresses.
Q.21.   Performance of a network is usually  measured by  the amount of data transferred per unit time.
Q.22.   Reliability  of a network is usually measured by  the frequency of failure (inverse of it).
Q.23.   Logical to physical addressing conversion is done in the Network Layer.
Q.24.   In stop and wait flow control method receiver  ACKs each  data frame received.   The alternative to 
this is called sliding window.
Q.25.   CSMA stands for  "Carrier Sense Multiple Access" which is standardized in IEEE 802.3.
Q.26.   The 10 Mbps  twisted pair ethernet is usually  designated by 10BaseT.
Q.27.   Ethernet or NIC addresses are 48 bit unique numbers used to identify  physical devices in CSMA/CD
networks.
Q.28.   Bridges divide  the networks into smaller  segments in order to reduce traffic.
Q.29.   Repeaters and Bridges are networking connecting devices.
Q.30.   In class-B IP-addresses 16 and 16 bits are reserved for host and  network identification respectively.
Q.31.   Topologically  fully  connected networks have the highest performance and the highest cost among 
the possible.
Q.32.   In full-duplex transmission mode devices can transmit and  receive simultaneously.
Q.33.   For  bit-rate to be three times the baud rate we need at least 8  constellations.
Q.34.   Physical Layer  deals with the physical and electrical specifications.
Q.35.   The term point-to-point indicates the dedicated links between two nodes.
Q.36.   Bus topology is the simplest and cheapest topology  to implement in  small networks.
Q.37.   Full-Duplex transmission mode can  be characterized simply as "two way  simultaneous 
transmission/reception".
Q.38.   Performance of a network is usually  measured by bits per second
Q.39.   Switching/Routing is the job of Network Layer.
Q.40.   Sliding Window line discipline where only  some of the enquiries are acknowledged is more efficient 
then Stop-and-Wait.
Q.41.   10BaseT can have a maximum segment length of 100 meters.
Q.42.   All NICs are manufactured having unique Hardware Address.
Q.43.   Physical addressing, error control and access (to media) control are managed by  the Data Link layer.
Q.44.   An advantage of 10BaseT over  10Base2 is that 10Base2 is maintained easier than 10Base2.
Q.45.   ‗Preamble‘ field at the beginning of an ethernet frame is used for  synchronization.
Q.46.   Bridges must have the following layers; Physical Layer  2 Data Link Layer.
Q.47.   ‗Time To Live‘ field in an IP packet determines the number of hops (routers) it passes
through before it is discarded.
Q.48.   A host running in an IP-network on the ethernet must be assigned these three numbers
properly  in order for  the networking software to operate correctly; IP address,  2. Netmask,  3.
Gateway address.
Q.49.   ARP is used on IEEE-802.3 networks in  order to obtain ethernet addresses using the IP
addresses.
Q.50.   The field named as ‗Window Size‘ in a TCP segment heade r indicates the sliding window size.
Q.51.   Standard TCP services use some standard TSAP numbers known  as well known ports numbers.
Q.52.   TCP is a connection oriented protocol while UDP is  not.
Q.53.   The three problems which limit a communication line are attenuation, distortion and noise.
Q.54.   In order for  a 2400 baud modem to achieve 9.6 kbps the constellation diagram must have at least
16 distinct points.
Q.55.   The filter with a bandwidth of 300-3400 Hz at the end office for  an ordinary  voice phone
line is removed for DSL operation.
Q.56.   An ADSL modem and a splitter are the  required equipment residing at the customer‘s
premises for the ADSL system.
Q.57.   Three of the BlueTooth profiles are Service Discovery, Serial Port, Cordless Telephony.
Q.58.   In piconets of BlueTooth, Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum technique is used with 1600
Q.59.   hops/sec and hop sequence is dictated by  the master.
Q.60.   Pseudoternary  encoding technique is used on T and S interfaces of ISDN system in order to
maintain synchronization during the long sequences of zeros.
Q.61.   PRI ISDN service carries 23 bearer and 1 data channels with a total of 1544 kbps.
Q.62.   Bus topology  usually  requires terminators at both  ends of the cable.
Q.63.   In half-duplex transmission mode both  station  can transmit and  receive but not at the same time.
Q.64.   Logical addressing and routing is the function of network layer.
Q.65.   Mail services are being made available by application layer.
Q.66.   Manchester  coding is one of the polar encoding techniques which effectively  eliminate DC
component of the signal.
Q.67.   In Diff. Manchester, the transition in the middle is used for  synchronization.
Q.68.   The number  of signal units per second is called baud-rate.
Q.69.   In QAM both amplitude and phase of the carrier signal are varied.
Q.70.   In stop-and-wait flow control technique, ever y  frame is acknowledged.
Q.71.   Physical Layer  deals with the physical and electrical specifications.
Q.72.   Full-duplex transmission mode can be characterized simply as "two way 
simultaneous transmission/reception".
Q.73.   All NICs are manufactured having unique ethernet address/MAC number.
Q.74.   10BaseT can have a maximum segment length of 100 meters.
Q.75.   The words and numbers '10' , ‗Base‘ and ' T' in 10BaseT respectively  indicate 10 Mbps baseband
and twisted pair.
Q.76.   Carrier extension and Frame bursting are features added to 802.3 by  the gigabit ethernet
standards.
Q.77.   1000Base-T uses 4 pairs of Cat-5 UTP.
Q.78.   Flooding is a packet routing method in which incoming packet is sent to ever y  neighbor
except where it came from.
Q.79.   In  Distance  Vector  Routing  a  router  receives  routing  information  f rom  all  of  its  neighbors
and by using the knowledge about its distance to its  neighbors it constructs its own routing table which
in turn used by  the router and distributed to the neighbors.
Q.80.   Hierarchical Routing reduces the memory  requirements at some penalty  on  the path
optimality  in large networks with large number  of routers.
Q.81.   If packets from a live audio/video source are to be distributed to multiple destinations we need to 
talk about Broadcast Routing.
Q.82.   The 802.11 configuration in which no central coordination is used for  is called Distributed
Q.83.   Coordination Function
Q.84.   Multipath Reception is a problem in  wireless systems, which deteriorates the  received signal at
the receiver.
Q.85.   When there is no central coordination is employed in 802.11, channel access privileges
(who transmits when) are determined by  a protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access /
Collision Avoidance.
Q.86.   In wireless ethernet, when  stations directly  talk to each other, a station  wanting to transmit data
when the channel is idle transmits Request To Send (RTS) frame first.
Q.87.   The small clusters of stations communicating using Bluetooth are called Piconets.
Q.88.   There can be only seven active slaves in a Bluetooth  station cluster.
Q.89.     The master  station in a Bluetooth  cluster employs Time Division Multiplexing in
order to communicate with slaves and send commands to them.
Q.90.     The destination address field in a Bluetooth  frame is three bits
Q.91.     Bluetooth  operates on 2.4 GHz ISM band and its range is about 10 meters.
Q.92.      The PSTN term Local Loop  refers to the wiring between the customer  and end office of the 
telecom company.
Q.93.   In PSTN, in  order for a modem customer to achieve 56 kbps transmission rate, the connection to ISP
must be digital.
Q.94.   QAM stands for  Quadrature Amplitude Modulation which means changing both Amplitude and Phase
of the carrier.
Q.95.     In 128-QAM, one change in carrier transmits seven bits including parity.
Q.96.     In DMT which is employed in DSL, of 256 f requency  channels 5 are not used to prevent 
interference between  voice and data signals.
Q.97.     Original antialiasing filter is  removed in DSL, but a pair  of Low Pass Filter is still used to split
voice and data channels in end office and in customer premises.
a.  ISDN stands for  Integrated Services Digital Network.
Q.98.     In ISDN two standard services are provided; BRI and PRI.
Q.99.     A B channel in ISDN service has the data rate of 64 kbps whereas a D channel carries 16 kbps.
Q.100.   23B+D configuration in ISDN is capable of carrying 1544 kbps.
Q.101.   Two features brought by  gigabit ethernet, Carrier Extension, Frame Bursting are
required to achieve 200 m in hub based networks.
Q.102.   Fast ethernet on Cat-5 cable runs at most 100 meters.
Q.103.   Hubs/Repeaters just repeat the incoming data and send it through all othe r  connected lines.
Q.104.   Different modes of light travel different total distances resulting in dispersion which causes
distortion in multimode fibers at long distances.
Q.105.   Multistation Access Unit is a term which refers to devices used to form a star topology  in Token
Ring.
Q.106.   FDDI stands for  Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
Q.107.   In Token Ring there is at least one frame traveling around the ring, and it is called the Token.
Q.108.   The communication  speed in FDDI is 100 Mbps.
Q.109.   Two common  transmission rates in ATM are 155.52 Mbps and 622 Mbps.
Q.110.   In ATM systems delivery is  not guaranteed but the order is.
Q.111.   Since the ATM cell size is 53 bytes ATM routers can be designed to be entirely
hardware (no software).
Q.112.   In ATM, after the connection  establishment between  the source and destination, data always
follow the same route which is called Virtual Circuit.
Q.113.   Fiber, among other  common transmission media, has the best performance thanks to its
high bandwidth and low EMI.
Q.114.   OSI stands for Open Systems Interface.
Q.115.   Service-point addressing  (different number for  each program) is the task of transport lay er  in
OSI 7- layer  model.
Q.116.   Signaling standards is in the interest of physical layer.
Q.117.   Ethernet bridges consist of physical and data-link layer(s).
Q.118.   In an ethernet network the interfaces are identified/addressed by  their ethernet
address/hardware address/MAC address.
Q.119.   The number  of pins on a RJ-45 connector at the end of a cat-5 cable is 8.
Q.120.   In Differential Manchester    represents the binary  stream 001011.
Q.121.   In an ethernet frame specified by  IEEE 802.3, preamble is used for  synchronization.
Q.122.   In Manchester  encoding    represents the binary  stream 001101.
Q.123.   The destination address in an ethernet frame is 48 bits.
Q.124.   The ‗Time-To-Live‘ field in IP-datagram determines the number  of hops.
Q.125.   Netmask is used to separate the network address from the IP  address.
Q.126.   The service that converts hostnames into host IP numbers is called Name Service.
Q.127.   The interface IP-numbers of a router between  IP networks shall be selected from the ranges of the
connected networks.
Q.128.   Routing table defines where to deliver the IP-packets when the destination is  not in the 
same network.
Q.129.   Exponential Back-off algorithm is used to determine the time to wait for another
transmission attempt in CSMA-CD  networks.
Q.130.   Fast ethernet on twisted pair cable is referred as 100Base-TX.
Q.131.   Fast ethernet on  fiber runs at most 2000 meters.
Q.132.   Bit rate is bits per  second whereas the baud  rate is symbols/changes pe r  second.
Q.133.   ADSL stands for  Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
Q.134.   Channel 0 in DMT of DSL is used for  basic telephony service.
Q.135.   In DSL, a filter called splitter must be used in both  customers‘ and Telco‘s premises.
Q.136.   23B+D configuration in ISDN is capable of carrying 1544 kbps.
Q.137.   CSMA/CD is not used in wireless ethernet because most radio devices can not listen and
transmit simultaneously.
Q.138.   The RF communication technique in wireless ethernet, in which the communication frequency
is periodically  switched within a set of predetermined sequence, is called Frequency Hopping Spread 
Spectrum.
Q.139.   A Bluetooth  device is expected to support the applications Generic Access and Service Discovery 
and the othe r profiles are optional.
Q.140.   A collection  of Bluetooth  piconets is called scatternet.
Q.141.   In Differential Manchester  encoding technique, the transition in the middle helps
synchronization but reduces the transmission rate.
Q.142.   In Link State Routing  routing, a router obtains the distances of its neighbors and shares
this information with all other routers it knows using specially  designed packets.
Q.143.   ARP is used on IEEE-802.3 networks in  order to obtain ethernet address from IP address
Q.144.   In class-A IP-addresses 24 bits are  reserved for host identification.

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