[Health] What is Scrub Typhus ? Signs and Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

What is Scrub Typhus ?
Scrub typhus, also known as bush typhus, is a disease caused by bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi. Scrub typhus is spread to people through bites of infected chiggers (larval mites). The most common symptoms of scrub typhus include fever, headache, body aches, and sometimes rash. Most cases of scrub typhus occur in rural areas of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, China, Japan, India, and
northern Australia. Anyone living in or traveling to areas where scrub typhus is found could get infected.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of scrub typhus usually begin within 10 days of being bitten. Signs and symptoms may include:
 Fever and chills
 Headache
 Body aches and muscle pain
 A dark, scab-like region at the site of the chigger bite (also known as eschar)
 Mental changes, ranging from confusion to coma
 Enlarged lymph nodes
 Rash

Indian Scenario
In India, scrub typhus has been reported from Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir and Vellore. In addition, few cases have been tested positive for IgM antibodies for scrub typhus from Sikkim, Darjeeling, Nagaland & Manipur (unpublished data). In a study conducted from July through October 2004 in Himalayas, among several cases of acute febrile illness of unknown origin, O.tsutsugamushi was identified as causative agent by microimmunofluorescence and PCR. In an entomologic study in Himachal Pradesh, vector species Leptotombidium deliense and Gahrliepia spp. were recorded.

Habitats Favorable for Disease Transmission
Scrub typhus, originally found in scrub jungles, has also been identified in a variety of other habitats, such as sandy beaches, mountain deserts and equatorial rain forests.

Incubation Period: Incubation Period: 1 – 3 weeks
• The symptoms of scrub typhus are similar to symptoms of many other diseases. See your health care provider if you develop the symptoms listed above after spending time in areas where scrub typhus is found.
• If you have recently traveled, tell your health care provider where and when you traveled.
• Your health care provider may order blood tests to look for scrub typhus or other diseases.
• Laboratory testing and reporting of results can take several weeks, so your health care provider may start treatment before results are available.

Treatment
• Scrub typhus should be treated with the antibiotic doxycycline and chloramphemicoil. Doxycycline can be used in persons of any age.
• Antibiotics are most effective if given soon after symptoms begin.

Prevention
• No vaccine is available to prevent scrub typhus.
• Reduce your risk of getting scrub typhus by avoiding contact with infected chiggers.
• When traveling to areas where scrub typhus is common, avoid areas with lots of vegetation and brush where chiggers may be found.

Recommendation: It is Advised:-
1. Patient presenting with above symptoms should visit the PHC/PHSC early for treatment.
2. Delay in treatment leads to complication and death.
3. Drugs like doxycycline, chloramphemicoil are treatement of choice.
4. Testing facility of scrub typhus is available in PHC, District Hospital and STNM Hospital.
5. To keep the surrounding and household area clean.
6. To maintain personal hygiene wash and clean clothing after coming back from forest and work area in village.
7. To avoid drying of clothing on the bushes and scrubs at villages.
8. Do not neglect any kind of insect bite to report at nearest hospital for treatment. Scrub typhus is curable and treatable if reported on time.
9. Since there is no Vaccines available for scrub typhus and causative insect are present in scrubs and bushes best way is to remain alert and take early treatments to avoid scrub typhus.

134 comments:

  1. Khadubhai nt ki cut off btao....

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  2. Can this question be asked in Mains of hpas

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    Replies
    1. Nahi....janhit mey jari kiya vigyapan tha ye...

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    2. news paper me likhna tha to wo bhi hindi mein agar janhit mein hai

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  3. Hold your breath guys..result coming within 1-2 days.

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    Replies
    1. Hw do u know!???

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    2. I have been regularly calling HPPSC in last few days. Earlier they used to tell me that they don't know the date, etc. But since last two-three days they are saying it around 20+-2 consistently. This is just a deduction. No source in HPPSC.

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  4. Probably 20th guys

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  5. Not 20th..... confirmed

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  6. Any update of result
    And
    Cutoff for hpas

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  7. Murkh bnate hai hpas wale...meko pehle bola first September week..fir 10 se pehle..fir 15 se pehle...fir 20 se pehle...ab dekhte hai

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  8. aaj kaal mein aa jana chahiye ..... cutoff exceptionally high (100-105 vale ka muskil hi hai ) as i am told ....

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    1. Yes I am also told cutoff very high hai...above 116....mine 122...finger crossed. ..

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    2. Aap logo ko kisny btaya..about cuttoff..any source...i mean hppsc ko call krky pta chla kya...ya any other source

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  9. Cutoff koi high nahi hai... will be around 100... just wait and watch...

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  10. Guys don't believe on those who are telling you that cutoff will be more than 100.It will not be more than 94-95 If you want to get a general idea then go and check last year detailed pre result(general studies marks). It will be more or less same as it was last year because dificulty level this year's paper was same as it was last year.

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  11. Result on Friday

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    Replies
    1. Who told u?..have u calld them

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    2. Phone aaya tha Chairman Saab ka :)

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    3. Haha..kahi aap topper to ni ho prelims k ....tabhi socha hoga k phone krky he puch lety hai k ye hai kaun

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    4. It was just on lighter note amid result's tension... :)

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    5. ok :) nd hope result will come soon..hppsc wakon ne sbko he tension de rkhi hai..bs ab aa jaey jldi..

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    6. Kahe ki tension bhai....ab toh tension bhi thak gyi...ab toh aisa hai ki bas nikaal do result...clear hota nhi hota...khtm karo syappa...daily hppsc ki site check krte ab toh mann hi sadd jata h....

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  12. I think since new syllabus. ..so they eill declare result late ...and take mains in feb...as was norm before tomar sir....so they not hurry to declare result...

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  13. Plz don't expect the result to be declare Soon as they have just started the process. Aaj Tak chutiye soye hue the... :P

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    Replies
    1. Its about to complete 3 months and upsc has declared with in 40 days..they should learn from them

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    2. Bhai aise gaali toh mat do. Garima hurt ho jati h :D

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  14. May be aj result aa jae. I called hppsc and he said aj shaam tk aa jaega 100%... lets see..

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  15. What's cutoff guys

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  16. result has been declared on hppsc website. see your result.

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  17. M in was getting 82.67 in obc category according to officail keys.

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    Replies
    1. Obc ...was getting 85 not in....

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    2. Sir there were around four questions which were according to me were right(checked on internet and on standard books) but in official key they were wrong.I was 100% sure that they were right. hppsc may have revised its key and my question may have got right. Thats why i think i am in with 82.67 marks.

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  18. Replies
    1. Apne bhi 95-96 the...not in...disappointed :(

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  19. when they will publish cutoff and marks
    ?

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  20. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  21. HPAS RESULT DECLARED AT 1430 HOURS ... ON SEP 20TH 2017
    for reference check HPPSC site

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    Replies
    1. 645 candidates cleared in all

      http://www.hppsc.hp.gov.in/hppsc/file.axd?file=2017%2f9%2fPress+Note-HPAS+%28Prlm%29+Examination-2016+Result+Declared.pdf

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  22. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  23. yes ...result is out....i am in....

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  24. Cutoff 98-101 k beech hi hai mtlb...

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  25. Ye mains kab h bhai logon??

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  26. mine was 99.67 in General category....OUT

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  27. Mains exam kab hoga??

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  28. Congrats Abhi pls tell what is ur score in NT so that I can guess cut off as I have 62 in OBC cat.Humble request

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    Replies
    1. Bhai u r definitely in because i hav scored only 63 😥

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    2. definetly u r in mr. brijhesh barti coz in n.t they have to chose 60 candidates in obc category.in last nt exam only one vacancy was there so they chose 20 candidates and no negative marking was there.merit was 74 at that time now take in consideration negative marking of this time so atleast less 9 marks from 74 than it will become 65 approximately.but now take fact of 3 times vacancies this time for obc so atleast we can predict that cutoff will be below 60 .and dont worry about those who r bullying to score above 80-90 coz such elements rarely exist on this earth.after much analysis i m saying this

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  29. Thanks Abhi Thakur n best of luck for HPAS mains

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    1. Thanks bhai and my wishes to u for NT mains

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  30. doston, ye batao NT ka result kab tak aa sakta hai,imean kab tak aane ki umeed hai.

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  31. Yaar bhai log... Us HPAS vale result article me comment nhi ho rhe...koi Khandu bhai ko btao k kare iska kuch...
    Also, Those who have filled their mains form, i have a query regarding that.
    1. They haven't asked about the examination centre, so what would it be? Same as prelim??
    2. They haven't asked about the medium in which candidate wants to write mains?? To phir ye HPPSC ko pta kaise chalega?? I mean UPSC me to puchte h vo.
    Can anybody clarify who has written mains earlier??

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    Replies
    1. Koi hai btane vala???

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    2. Sir mains will be held at shimla only So no need to ask. In upsc there are many centres where mains exam held so they ask about centres. Regarding medium related question i m not sure May be they take reference from pre form.

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    3. Thank you sir ji.... :)

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    4. i had also same query regarding medium for mains and i talked commission about this, they assured me that we can choose medium during examination coz there was no column in the main application form for filling medium so dont worry.......also in allied main examination held i feb. 2017 we chose medium during the main examinations......and examination centers will be in shimla thats already conform .i hope this will clerify ur doubt

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  32. When will be the mains exam. Will it be before elections or after it.

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    Replies
    1. Most probably in or after 2nd week of November...

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    2. Thanks. Any new update.

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  33. Rfo pre on 29 oct

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  34. Is any affect of election on hpas mains . can anyone tell me if he knows little bit

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  35. Any idea about NT cutoff.

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  36. bhaiyon 9 nov ko election hai,18 dec ko counting hai,mera mind kahraha hai mains hpas 18 dec se pehley nahi honge.vaise toh hppsc dec aur jan mein paper nahi leta hai feb third week mein hone chaiye.let us see what haapens.

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  37. HAS main exam in 3rd week of Nov 2017

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  38. Happy Diwali to all....

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  39. Dear sirs and mams, does anybody know where to stay during HPAS mains; hotel or HPPSC has some hostel sort of thing? Thanks in advance.

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  40. Hpas exam will held on Feb 2018

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    Replies
    1. sir/madam . Call on 0177 - 2624313 ask to direct you to HAS section . They are affirmatively saying 27 nov to 30 . So NO 2018 !!

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  41. Just spoke to them.they have given tentative dates around 26th November.

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    Replies
    1. Why HPPSC not issuing the exam notification? If date is around 26 nov, then just one month is there. Atleast they should notify us timely.

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    2. Ye paper hona b h k nhi HAS ka? No notification yet.

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  42. Can any one please guide where to stay during HPAS main exams; hotel or some sort of hostel.

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    Replies
    1. No paid hostel facility, you have to stay there on your own arrangement- Hotel, Guest House etc.

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  43. Datesheet out for HPAS mains. 27 to 30 nov.

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  44. RFo ka exam kisne diya? Paper kafi tough tha. Mujhe to paper HAS level ka LGA. Question kafi bdhiya dhng se set kiye gye the. Tukagiri ki koi gunjais nhi... Cutoff mere hisab se gen k liye 50-55 tk a skti hai. Baki koi bhai kisne paper diya wo btaye

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    1. Same here bro, even i think it was more or less of the same level as HPAS.

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    2. I have given RFO exam. It was factual as usual and in line with traditional trends. HAS prelim is now becoming different than RFO,NT, etc as the approach has been changed a little. So different to compare both. Though HP GK questions in RFO were more good than HAS prelim, overall the questions were on the expected lines. Keep in touch with current affairs, the utmost requirement of all exams whether RFO, NT or HPAS. All the best.

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  45. Current affairs k liye koi (ecology specific) koi mag/site bhai.
    Apke kitne BN rhe?

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    1. Actually, ecology k ye log koi jyada traditional concept nhi puchte. Jo news me rehte h vo generally puche jate h both traditional and current related. Like ecological footprint vala question khin na kahin news me rehta h ya environmental Kuznet curve vala question.
      So acha hoga k koi coaching institute k monthly Current Affairs utha lo like VisionIAS Delhi, insightonIndia website or others. Ministry specific website se padna mshkil hota h. Yahi decide krna mushkil ho jata h k kya pden. So trade off is better in case of monthly compilation, I think. In case if you are preparing from himachal, use online platforms as material would not be easy.
      Mere i hope around 55 ban rhe h.

      In case you want links.
      http://visionias.in/resources/
      http://www.insightsonindia.com/

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  46. "The smallest act of kindness is worth more than the grandest intention." thanks bro
    apka ho jayega pre clear.

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    Replies
    1. We all are on the same boat trying to achieve our desired and destined goals. So there is no need to say thanks. I must thank you for giving such a beautiful line which can be used in written exams and in life too.
      Keep your enthusiasm up and rest on god. All the very best for your future endeavors.

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  47. Answer key for rfo has come
    Do check your performance

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  48. 56 marks any chance for rfo mains

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  49. Bhae very much close but as per level of paper 56 seems to be a border line case. I am also doubtful for myself also getting near by 59 marks only

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    1. 59 score .....I am getting 67....I am also doubt ful.....let's see....

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    2. Bro u r in definitely if u r getting 67

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  50. Ok bro
    Thanks for your suggestion on my doubt

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  51. 16 post for gen category. Total candidates to be called for mains -
    16×20 = 320. As paper was hard , I think the cutoff will be 48-52. One more thing to remember , only science graduates are eligible , so overall merit will be low...There are 50-60 candidates who are scoring 55+. 320 candidates can't score above 55. Mark my words

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  52. Can somebody please upload rfo prelims paper here ....thank you ....official key has been uploaded in hppsc website .....

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  53. 52(approx) is enough score. One doubt regarding Who gave the concept of human development. Amartya sen option a and b both are correct.

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    1. u are in. HDI mainly given by mahbub ul haq

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    2. Mahbub-al-haq is credited with development of Human development concept. Amartya Sen was just a part of his research.

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  54. two questios are wrong. 1. govt debt to gdp ratio in 2016 is 69.5.... ac to answer key 68.5

    2. limited election was introduced by Morley minto reforms, 1909

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    Replies
    1. 1892 is correct as it introduced elections in indirect manner for the first time. Landlords were allowed in the council through indirect elections for the first in 1892. This is available in Bipin Chandra book.
      The following question is wrong- The Female literacy rate of all the four states as per 2011 census is higher than national average. So the question should be cancelled.

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    2. yup r right, but they do not asked about zamindars, They asked for Professional classes supersiding zamindars,,,, professional classes and others were allowed through 1909 council act.

      one more question should be cancelled. they asked for Govt debt to gdp RATIO for india in 2016.... ratio is 4.4%, which is not in options. do correct me, if i am wrong

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  55. cutt off obc kitni jaa sakti hai bhai

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  56. HAS ki 50 percent aur NT ki bhi 50 to 55 percent. iski to iss hisab se 45 percent honi chaiye

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  57. Cut off for general category in rfo ????

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  58. Tb to 52-53 wale ka koe chance ni Hai����

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  59. Ro ka paper please download kr skta ha koi bhai ya email kar de please dc.sharma13@gmail.com pr please I need it urgent

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  60. 44 candidates got rejected after scrutiny for hpas mains. You can check the list on hppsc website(admission rejection section).

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    Replies
    1. kyu afwah faela rahe ho

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    2. http://www.hppsc.hp.gov.in/hppsc/page/AdmissionRejection.aspx

      Its here bro... Admitted candidates list is also uploaded.

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  61. Or bhai logon, kaise preparation chal rhe h mains ki??

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  62. I have a general question. Which post is offered to those who are selected for HAS immediately after training. For HPS I guess it's Dy. SP. What's the career progression chances for both these cadres, please share your ideas.

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  63. Hey guys, i want to clarify if roll no. will come via post or online?

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    Replies
    1. By post. Commission has mentioned this in main examdates notification.

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  64. Obc cut kya rahegi nt me ?

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  65. Has anyone got HPAS MAINS ADMIT CARD yet?

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  66. hlo frnds shimla me rhne ke lea hotels etc ki online booking ho sakti during mains????

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  67. With 54.25 obc nt pre..should i prepare for mains please help frndzzzz plzzzz help

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    1. This comment has been removed by the author.

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    2. ofcourse u should prepare for mains.coz in hpas pre cutoff was approximately 48 percent for obc,and only 40 candidates got selected.in n.t they will select 60 o.b.c candidates.so cutoff will not be very high.stay positive and prepare.all the best

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  68. Guys I have a doubt that should we write whole question while answering it or simply write 2-3 words of question and question number.
    Or while answering English and Hindi questions which generally belong to grammar, we have to write whole question of single grammetic line or not?

    ReplyDelete

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